Organic Gardening
Get dirty, have fun and grow more food with great gardening tips from real-life gardeners.

Chemical Fungicide Attracts Honey Bees

beeRecent studies have discovered a shift in the pollination preference of a honey bee. In the journal Scientific Reports, researchers state that they are now finding that honey bee foragers prefer to collect syrup laced with the fungicide chlorothalonil to regular sugar syrup found in nature.

Chlorothalonil and other fungicide chemicals can interfere with a honey bee’s ability to metabolize other compounds or chemicals, putting them in danger.

The trouble with these fungicides is that many people use them believing that they will only affect fungi. In reality, fungi are more closely related to animals than they are to plants, which means that fungicides are more harmful to the animals that interact or ingest them than they are to surrounding plants, which includes honey bees.

The largest contaminants found in honey bee hives are chemicals found in fungicides, which researches suspect that the honey bees are bringing it in themselves. Many are puzzled by this, believing that the honey bees would know to avoid the unnatural chemicals, but for some species, the preference and willingness to forage for these chemicals could be explained by their evolutionary history.

“Honey bee foragers are gleaners,” said University of Illinois entomology professor and department head May Berenbaum. “They’re active from early spring until late fall, and no single floral source exists for them for that whole season. If they don’t have a drive to search out something new, that’s going to seriously compromise their ability to find the succession of flowers they need. Unnatural chemicals might be a signal for a new food.”

Most concerning, however, is the research that shows that exposure to fungicides can interfere with a honey bee’s ability to metabolize acaricides used by many bee keepers to kill off varroa mites that can infest bee hives and kill off the bees quickly. This leaves the honey bees incredibly vulnerable to a harmful pest that target bees.

While the bees seem to prefer fields sprayed with fungicides, these chemicals are incredibility harmful and are polluting their beehives without their knowing. Since honey bees cannot see the effects of these chemicals, it is up to people to find a new way to protect their plants from fungi while also protecting honey bees from the fungicides.

This press release is presented without editing for your information. MOTHER EARTH NEWS does not recommend, approve or endorse the products and/or services offered. You should use your own judgment and evaluate products and services carefully before deciding to purchase.

Best Seed Catalogs

What does it say about you when your favorite books are seed catalogs? That you’re a hard-core gardener, that’s what. When the harvest is finally over and at least some of fall’s garden clean-up has been accomplished, I’m pretty drained and wonder about the wisdom of working so hard growing and preserving a large garden full of fruits and vegetables. But by the time seed catalogs start rolling in during January and even as early as December, I’m all atwitter at the prospect of trying out new things in the garden.

As most gardeners do, I get a lot of seed catalogs. I find I most often rely on four or five of them. Below are my favorite seed catalogs along with an explanation of why I love them so. 

vegetable seed catalogs

Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds

I almost don’t dare open this one—it’s so full of rare seeds for unusual plants, my personal weakness, that I find it hard to impose any self-discipline. Everything about the story of this company is inspiring. The founder, Jere Gettle, printed his first Baker Creek catalog when he was only seventeen in 1998. What a feat! According to the catalog, Baker Creek offers almost 2,000 varieties of vegetable, flower, and herb heirlooms, the largest number in the country. The catalog features rare and endangered seeds from the 19th century and around the globe.

The company holds heritage festivals once month during the growing season at its headquarters in Mansfield, Missouri and for the last seventeen years has hosted a spring planting festival with music, vendors, craftspeople, and workshops. It’s on my calendar.

Baker Creek has a flat shipping rate of $3.50, regardless of how little or how much you order; it has low prices; and in many cases, the catalog tells you how many seeds are in a packet, so you know exactly what you’re getting for your money.

What I love: Hands down, the unusual plants that are highlighted throughout. And there’s this—a couple of years ago, we purchased a packet of seed that didn’t germinate. We didn’t think to report it, assuming we’d picked the wrong location in the garden. What a pleasant surprise to receive, unsolicited, a gift certificate for twice our purchase amount because the company had determined it was a bad batch. Now, that’s customer service.

High Mowing Organic Seeds

The first page of this catalog features all its new varieties. (They must know my weakness!) The last two pages feature a planting chart for each type of vegetable offered in the catalog. Nice perk!

For each vegetable, there is solid cultural information—a must for me. The catalog also lists its prices in a chart, so it’s easy to compare the prices of different varieties. High Mowing offers variety of cover crops, as well as a number of gift box collections (winter garden, bee’s garden, kids’ garden, and others).

What I love: Competitive prices with free shipping for orders over $10.00

Sow True Seeds

Sow True is the new kid on my gardening block. This Ashville, NC-based seed company has only been around for eight years. Ashville isn’t too far down the road from my mountain home, so I get to visit the retail store personally and I’ve watched the business grow. It’s easy to see that the staff members are passionate about what they’re doing. Sow True features only open-pollinated seed, many of which are and USDA-certified organic. It offers a 100% satisfaction guarantee, to boot.

In addition to offering a brief cultural summary for each variety, the catalog features a chart of growing information, including the number of seeds per ounce, seed viability, and isolation distance. Good info to have and nice to be able to see it all in one place—before you order.

In addition to the usual suspects, and some not so usual ones, Sow True sells a variety of mushroom plugs, its own line of organic sprouting seeds, and ready-made seed bombs. Prices are competitive, often lower than those of other companies.

What I love: It’s local! With a mission of supporting independent, regional agricultural initiatives that foster a sustainable economy and food sovereignty, I’ve just got to support Sow True in return.

Johnny’s Selected Seeds

Johnny’s is my go-to catalog for detail. There’s a prominently displayed growing guide for both direct-seeded and transplanted vegetables. There’s a detailed sidebar for each type of vegetable that includes information on things like culture, harvest, disease susceptibility, storage, and more. There’s the in-depth description of each variety as well as good-enough-to-eat full color photographs of nearly every variety.

Johnny’s is known for the high quality of its seeds. The catalog has extensive flower and herb selections, too. To top it off, you’ll find a nearly forty pages’ worth of tools and supplies to round out your gardening experience.

What I love: The detailed sidebars. This is such an easy tool that I count this catalog as one of my gardening reference books.

More Great Catalogs

Other winning catalogs include Botanical Interests, Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, Seed Savers Exchange, Fedco Seeds, The Cook’s Garden, Pine Garden Seeds, and Jung Seed. Now that you’re armed with a list of great catalogs, all you have to do is get your hands on a few of them, circle all your favorite veggies, place your order, and plant those seeds.

Carole Coates is a gardener and food preservationist, family archivist, essayist, poet, photographer, modern homesteader. You can follow her Mother Earth News blog posts by following this link. You can also find Carole at Living On the Diagonal where she shares her take on life, including modern homesteading, food preparation and preservation, and travel as well random thoughts and reflections, personal essays, poetry, and photography.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

Low-Tech Farming Pest Control in Testing

flowersA farm near Buckingham, England is testing a new method of pest control for farms that does not involve any commercial pesticides. Instead of spraying the fields with potentially harmful chemicals, these farmers are planting rows of flowers that run directly through the middle of their farm to attract pest-eating bugs to their farms, and replace the need for chemical pesticides. This farm is 1 of 14 sites in a study testing how well wildflowers attract pest-eating bugs, and how well they can replace commercial pesticides.

The study also includes planting a border of wildflowers around the field to promote general biodiversity, which these farmers have done for nearly two decades. Although not used specifically for pest control, these wildflower borders have helped researchers and farmers see that perhaps the flowers can be used as pesticides. However, since small bugs cannot travel far, the farmers have begun planting the wildflowers in strips right through their farms. This way, the small bugs can handle the flight time from one wildflower patch to the next, and stay on task of eating the farm pests.

“The wide-scale adoption of precision agricultural systems, particularly GPS mapping and precision application technologies, means that it should now possible to implement and protect these in-field habitats,” researchers Ben Woodcock and Richard Pywell, of the U.K.-based Center for Ecology and Hydrology, write in an email. “This would have been very challenging a few years ago. While this is unlikely to eliminate the need to apply pesticide, it may mean that pests populations are maintained below levels at which they cause damage to crops for longer periods, thus reducing the number of pesticide sprays applied.”

Many pesticides in the UK have been taken off the market due to the growing evidence that link many cases of polluted drinking water and dead bees. However, many pesticides that are still in use are sprayed so frequently that it causes the pesticide to become less effective as pests become more resistant to the chemicals. This bright side of this is that options for pest control on farms are waning, which makes now a good time to rethink the future of crop protection methods.

A similar study in Switzerland planted poppies and other flowers along the fields, and reported a 61 percent decreased in leaf damages, due to the flowers’ ability to shield insects like ladybugs that eat wheat-eating pests. Scientists with this study suggest that the real effectiveness behind this method is choosing the right combination of flowers for each particular field or farm.

The next step of this research is to bring the method to larger commercial farms, to test if the results are the same and can be applied on a much larger scale. Researchers also want to look further into the economic value of this method, and how it can be incorporated with more modern farming tech and practices.

This method probably will not completely eliminate the use of pesticides, but it could significantly decrease its use on farms, serving as a backup plan rather than a primary defense.

This press release is presented without editing for your information. MOTHER EARTH NEWS does not recommend, approve or endorse the products and/or services offered. You should use your own judgment and evaluate products and services carefully before deciding to purchase.

Growing Soft Fruits for Beginners



Strawberries will produce a crop the first summer after planting. Choose a mix of early, mid and late-season varieties to extend your harvest from spring right through to fall. Extend the season even further by planting a late variety under row covers.

Mulch with straw once the plants begin to flower to keep fruits clean and prevent them from rotting on the soil surface. The only ‘pruning’ strawberries need is snipping off the leaves once they’ve finished fruiting.


There are two types of raspberry: summer-fruiting and fall-bearing. Fall-bearing raspberries are the easier of the two, and will produce berries from late summer until the first frosts. They need only minimal support, and to prune simply cut back all of the old canes after they’ve fruited but before new growth begins in spring.


Most modern varieties of blackberries are vigorous and thornless, with large fruits that are sweeter than those of their wild relatives.  Simply tie them to supports to keep them tidy, and cut out old canes to promote new growth.


Blackcurrants, redcurrants and whitecurrants all fruit freely, producing heavy crops of currants to eat fresh, use in sauces or turn into jam.

Currants are best grown in cooler climates and can cope with some shade. They require very little care, even cropping when neglected, but winter pruning to cut out some of the older and crossing branches will encourage vigorous new growth and good fruiting.


Gooseberries prefer cooler climates and some shelter from the wind, but will thrive in just about any soil type. There are culinary varieties for using in jams, pies and jellies, and dessert varieties which can be eaten fresh.

Like currants, gooseberries will crop even when they are neglected. Regular feeding, pruning and mulching will help to insure heavy harvests however.

Some states restrict the growing of currants and gooseberries because they can host white pine blister rust, which causes major problems for the lumber industry. Modern breeding has created varieties resistant to the disease so restrictions have been lifted in most states, but check before planting.

Growing Soft Fruits

Plant container-grown soft fruits at any time of year, and bare-root fruits from late fall onwards; delay until early spring in colder regions.

Water soft fruits thoroughly at least once a week in the first year after planting, and in dry weather thereafter. Spread a layer of organic mulch such as compost 2” deep in spring to feed your plants and improve the soil.

Birds love soft fruits too. To keep them off use netting, or build a walk-in fruit cage for a more permanent solution.


Get More Tips with These Great Gardening Resources

Our popular Vegetable Garden Planner can help you map out your garden design, space crops, know when to plant which crops in your exact location, and much more.

Need crop-specific growing information? Browse our Crops at a Glance Guide for advice on planting and caring for dozens of garden crops.

More Videos

Watch more videos on gardening techniques and other self-reliance, DIY topics on our Wiser Living Videos page.


Some Resources for Three Sisters Gardening


Here are a few resources for those starting or teaching Three Sisters gardening this year. Warning: some of these books, articles, and web links are so engaging, they could be addictive! This is not an exhaustive list by any means. There are substantial gaps; please add resources you find particularly useful.

And please remember that the written word, excellent as it is, is meant as a blueprint only, a starting place. It can never replace oral tradition for your locale. Search out indigenous and other heritage Three Sisters gardeners and farmers where you live or as close as you can get, to learn from those people and seeds who have “the long memory.”

Oral Resources

How to Grow a Three-Sisters' Garden

A good place to start finding local heritage gardeners and farmers to ask is local seed saving groups, seed exchanges, and seed libraries, often located at or affiliated with local book libraries. If nothing pops out right away, visit RMSA Seed Libraries to find the closest group.


Beautiful Corn by Anthony Boutard

Farmers Boutard and his wife, Carol, own Ayers Creek Farm in Gaston, OR. If you read nothing else on corn, read this. A slim book, it is nevertheless an essential foundation text on heritage and adapted corn and corn-growing. Boutard covers topics including the origins of corn, what the difference is between popcorn, flint, dent, flour, (and broom, which is not a corn), which type grow best where and which makes the most flavorful, best-textured cornbread, hominy, etc., the geography of corn, different stages of corn growth, heritage varieties of each type, eating the quelites (the wild greens in the cornfield), corn cooking and recipes, choosing seed, harvest and storage.

The Story of Corn by Betty Fussell

The jacket cover says this book “changes completely one's sense of the shape and nature of the American experience. You will never again munch on a hush puppy...or simply pass a cornfield in the same way.” That was true for me. Fussell includes both South and North American history in her wry, panoramic survey of the reaches of corn into every facet of our lives. I came away awestruck at the entwined, complex, riveting history of humans and corn.

Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden “by” Gilbert L. Wilson

Buffalo Bird Woman of the Hidatsa people was born in 1839 in what is now North Dakota. Anthropologist Gilbert L. Wilson meticulously transcribed her detailed gardening advice and first published it in 1917. It's still in print. She covers all aspects of traditional Hidatsa growing, harvesting, and storing of the Three Sisters, with accompanying traditional cultural practices. This book is priceless both for its gardening knowledge and its glimpse into a way of life in which the Three Sisters were fully integrated.

Selu: Seeking the Corn Mother's Wisdom by Marilou Awiakta

Cherokee/Appalachian writer Marilou Awiakta writes that the word for corn as grain and the word for corn as spirit, “Mother of us all,” are both pronounced Selu. Corn thus nourishes in two ways that must not be separated. Wilma Mankiller, Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, writes in the Foreword: “In the old days the Cherokee people believed that the world existed in a precarious balance and that only right or correct actions kept it from tumbling. Wrong actions were believed to disturb the balance.” The Corn Mother taught and teaches these right actions. Awiakta writes: “Through corn's natural ways of growing and being, the spirit sings of strength, respect, balance, harmony. Of adaptability, cooperation, unity in diversity. Songs of survival.” Awiakta urges hope in the application of this traditional wisdom to our relationship with both the human community and the natural world.

Oaxaca al Gusto by Diana Kennedy

British-born Diana Kennedy has lived in Mexico since 1957 and celebrated in her cookbooks Mexican culinary cultures which still prepare corn the traditional way, with mano and metate. Most recipes in this book, which won the James Beard Foundation Cookbook of the Year award, feature corn, beans, and sometimes squash—daily food, festival food. Reading these recipes, I feel like I'm back at the source where the community of corn, beans and squash began, where a big part of life revolves around growing, preparing, and eating them in infinitely varied and mouth-watering ways.


This article from Native Seeds/SEARCH mentions why corn is mounded in wet areas of our country, which does not apply to those living in semi-arid and arid areas (unless in a flood situation).

Downloadable pdf based on the article

How to Plant the Three Sisters from Cornell University Cooperative Extension

and its related articles, such as The Need for Diversity and Classroom Activities

Note: Diversity of Advice

I've read so many "How to Grow a Three Sisters Garden" articles from all over the country and the only thing they have in common is the important basics about how one plant helps another. That's where the similarities mostly end.

They differ on garden plans, advice on how many kernels to put in each hole, where to put the holes, what kernels go in each hole, how far apart everything should be. They differ about other plants in the system. One source tells us that Rocky Mountain Bee Plant (Cleome serrulata) was and is a fourth sister in the Tewa culture. It's a food, medicine, and dye and grows over a wide range of our country. Other sources say other plants are the definitive “fourth sister.” Some authors thankfully call them all “cousins.” Some sources say “plant sunflowers [sometimes called a fourth sister], right next to the corn.” Others say “sunflowers are allelopathic [slowing or inhibiting growth of nearby plants]; don't let them near your Three Sisters!” Some articles say, “plant sweet corn!” Other say, “never plant sweet corn! Won't work!” Some say, “never plant popcorn!” Others say, “plant popcorn!”

The reader comments following each article are equally wide and seemingly contradictory.

Who's right? Whom to follow--who's the authority?

There is no one-size-fits-all authoritative how-to guide for our gigantic country. What works one place may fail in another and vice versa.  On a micro scale, what works in one soil could do poorly even five feet away in a different soil or under different conditions. A variety adapted to my place may behave very differently from one adapted to yours. Thank heaven for the diversity. Ask indigenous and other heritage gardeners local to your area (see third paragraph of this article), know your land, trust yourself, talk it over, and experiment. Just try. Honor your adventure. And after a year or few of saving seeds from each experiment, your garden will be a wise teacher of local adaptation, local terroir, local savoir.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

How to Grow Chestnuts and Hazelnuts and Why You Should

This year’s NOFA New York Winter Conference had a huge range of workshops, from practical presentations on cover cropping and compost to discussions about reducing food waste and how to advocate for a better farm bill to intensive, hands-on bread baking classes. With dozens of workshops each day there were topics of interest and utility for farmers, gardeners, and individuals interested in the connection between health and farming.

One fascinating talk, given by Akiva Silver, owner of Twisted Tree Nursery, and Brian Caldwell, a farmer and Cornell researcher, discussed the history and practical use of hazelnuts and chestnuts. These two species are beautifully complementary: chestnuts produce a carbohydrate rich nut, while hazels are high in fat and protein. Chestnuts are full-sized trees, while hazels are modest shrubs. There are varieties of each that are adapted to a wide range of climates. They are hardy and vigorous, and together yield an abundance of food.

In the first post, I’ll summarize Akiva and Brian’s key points about hazelnut cultivation, and in the second I’ll deal with chestnuts.

About Hazelnuts

There are species of hazelnut that can grow anywhere from subtropical Asia all the way to northern Canada. Though some hazels mature to the size of proper trees, most varieties, including all of the types grown for nuts, are multi-stemmed shrubs. Their small size and high level of production makes them a perfect choice for gardeners, homesteaders, and farmers alike.

But getting the right plant is critical. Almost all commercially grown nuts — those you’ll find in the grocery store or in confections — come from the Common or European Hazel. While this may be a good variety for large hazelnut producers, its particular requirements mean it isn’t suitable for most people in most parts of America. It requires cool summers and very mild winters, and it is larger than many other hazels, easily reaching 20 feet in height. Further, it is not resistant to Filbert Blight, a disease endemic to the eastern United States.

But hazelnut bushes readily hybridize, and for decades plant breeders have been working to cross European with native Beaked and American hazels. The result is a smaller shrub - usually about eight feet tall - that is prolific, cold hardy, and resistant to Filbert Blight and other common diseases. In good soil these hybrids will begin bearing nuts in three to four years, and in seven to eight they will reach full production. While there are not yet any named, clonally produced varieties, quality stock propagated from seed is available from several sources.

Once hazels are established they are incredibly hardy. They store a huge amount of energy in their roots, and they grow vigorous new stalks each spring. When they are bearing they appreciate fertilizer, but they will produce a good crop even in relatively poor soils with minimal inputs.

But just because you’ve grown a bunch of nuts doesn’t mean you’ll get to eat them. Squirrels, chipmunks, turkeys, and other birds love hazels, and they will happily spend every waking hour harvesting them once they ripen. This is another reason it’s good to get shrubs that mature at a relatively small size — they can be harvested by hand, which gives you a chance to beat the wildlife to them. Planting shrubs with American genetics helps here, too.

The husks of European hazelnuts open early, meaning birds have an easy time picking them out. Hybrid and American hazelnuts can be harvested while the husk is still tightly closed, before other critters have eaten them, and then dried inside. This can be done in a dehydrator, but simply placing them in an area of the house with good air circulation also works well.

There are a few insect pests to consider. Planting high-quality trees will reduce the risk of serious infestations, but good management practices also help. Proper soil preparation, particularly adequate liming, can significantly reduce disease and pests. Making sure all nuts are harvested from the bushes and the ground will help limit populations of weevils and other bugs that rely on them for food, and removing any dead wood is always a good idea.

Big bud mites are a pest that attack flowers, causing them to swell and then drop. American hazelnuts are more susceptible than European trees, which is yet another reason that hybrid trees, with their blend of advantageous traits, are the best choice for most people.

Fully dried nuts can be stored for at least a year in shell without losing quality. They can be shelled with most common nut crackers, but if you grow a lot it’s worth investing in a hand crank model. They are delicious eaten raw or roasted, and they can be ground into meal, or, if you own or have access to a press, they yield a fragrant oil.

Tips for Planting Hazelnuts

1. If you have acid soils, it is important to add some lime. Aim for a Ph of 6.5.

2. Good drainage is also critical. Making a small mound for an individual tree or a berm for a row will go a long way to keeping your hazels happy, particularly if you have heavy, clay-rich soils.

3. Generally, plant in the fall or early spring, but ask whoever you get your trees from what they recommend.

4. Young trees will appreciate having a scoop of well aged compost mixed in with their soil, but avoid chemical fertilizers, chicken manure, or any other amendment with highly available nitrogen.

5. Transplanting is always stressful, so water the trees as necessary. (But don’t waterlog them!)

6. Protect them from deer. If you’re only planting a few trees, staking a hoop of wire mesh fencing around each works well. Some people also have luck with pepper or egg sprays.

7. If you want nuts, plant at least two, but preferably three or more plants, with four feet between them. Hazelnuts do not self-pollinate, so they need friends!

8. When hazelnuts are fully mature prune them by removing some of the oldest wood each winter, starting when the shrubs are in their tenth year. Removing old live wood promotes vigorous growth, which keeps shrubs producing well.

Photos by Akiva Silver

Garth Brown is an owner of Cairncrest Farm. He sells 100% grass-fed beef and lamb as well as pastured pork and poultry to Long Island, Brooklyn, and the greater New York City area. You can read more of his writing on his farm’s blog. Read all of Garth’s MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts with his brother, Edmund, here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

Save with These Varieties of Bare Root Fruit Trees and Berries


In northern forests, leaves falling to the soil each fall serves a big function. First, all of the carbon from last season’s leaves falls to the ground to both provide nutrients as well as to mulch and insulate the soil temperature. Second, by dropping their leaves, the canopy trees above allow for the winter sun to penetrate into the soil below, spawning the growth and flowering of understory herbs and shrubs.

At the beginning of each year, nurseries around the county offer bare root fruit trees. These berries and trees are still dormant until warmer weather and longer days coax them from their winter rest.  For dormant fruit trees, winter is the time to do pruning. While they rest without leaves, they are less fussy about pruning or transplanting.

Now is the best time to get them for ~40% of the price they will be in the spring. An added bonus, as they are “bare”, they are lighter and easier to transport.

Good Varieties for Bare Root Fruit Trees

Apples: “Gala” or other low-chill variety*

Pears: “20th Century Asian” or “D’Anjou”

Plum: “Elephant Heart” or “Santa Rosa”

Pluot: “Flavor Grenade” or “Flavor King”

Apricot: “Blenheim”

Persimmon: “Jiro Fuyu”

Good Varieties for Bare Root Berries

Red Raspberry: try “Willamette”or “Autumn Bliss”

Fall Golden Raspberry: “Fall Golden”

Black Raspberry: try “Black Munger” or “Cumberland Black Cap”

Grapes: “Flame”or “Thompsons”

Kiwi: “Vincent Tender”

Planting Guidelines for Bare Root Fruit Trees

Because bare root are without soil, it is important to create a fertile soil blend. One easy way is to utilize an OMRI-listed organic bag planting mix, i.e. Fox Farm’s Ocean Forest.

Step One: Dig an over-sized hole.

Step Two: Create a soil “pyramid” under where plant will go.

Step Three: Measure the height of the bare root from root bottom to root crown.

Step Four: Open the roots to “skirt” on the soil “pyramid”.

Step Five: Fill hole with soil and lightly tamp it to secure tree/shrub at proper height and that it sits straight up and down in its new hole.

Step Six: Mulch with wood chips or straw. This will insulate and protect its roots while it regenerates.

Step Seven: Water in the new plants.

You can order bare root stock from Grow Organic and learn more about food forestry at Native Sun Gardens. Here’s a helpful link specific to currants.

Joshua Burman Thayer is a landscape designer and permaculture consultant with Native Sun Gardens. He is the Urban Agriculture Supervisor for Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation in San Francisco, Calif. Find him at Native Sun Gardens and read his other MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.