Organic Gardening

Get dirty, have fun and grow more food with great gardening tips from real-life gardeners.

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Depending on where you are in North America, by now winter is either gently nudging or banging loudly on your door. Fear not: There are steps that can be taken to achieve good garden growth through the winter months. For readers wishing to increase capacity during the frosty months, read on.

Natural Slugs-Be-Gone

With the cooler, wetter conditions late fall becomes slug season. In our downtown San Francisco garden, the slugs seem to first go for the broccolini. One way to dissuade them is by planting an “Onion Moat.” This perimeter is distasteful to slugs and snails and seems to slow down their slimy march into the leafy greens.

Another way to discourage pest is by spraying organic peppermint oil at dusk. I drop 10 drops into a 750 mL spray bottle. At dusk once per week, I spray the tops and bottoms of each leaf. This peppermint oil is unpleasant to slugs, while not leaving a foul taste in the produce. (Note: Only spray at dusk and not more than once per week.)

Mulch for Heat

Another way to buffer root temperature is with mulching. One trick I like is to stack hay bales vertically on the windy side of the garden to create a windbreak.  These bales can then, one at a time be laid out as mulch to insulate winter plants. As I mentioned in my previous post, Thinking Outside the Box, by building trellis’ to the north edge of growing areas, we increase vertical productivity. As an added bonus, each of these trellises also reduce the cold northern winds.

Another way to buffer plants and create a living mulch is to intensively plant. Known as the French Bio-Intensive Method, this method was brought to the United States by luminary Alan Chadwick through the University of California-Santa Cruz garden program and further popularized by Chadwick disciple, John Jeavons. In his book, How to Grow More Vegetables, Jeavons outlines how to intensively plant a patch for succession harvest. 

By planting plants close together and radially harvesting single leaves each week with scissors, we can fit more plants into an area and create a contiguous canopy that shelters roots from the Sun and Wind. In this way we are mimicking a micro forest, where the falling of an old tree *(harvested veggie) makes a hole in the canopy for the next sprout to emerge. This takes advantage of solar gain in small spaces. 

Cover Crop with Edibles

Green mulching protects the soil line from winter conditions, while producing a cover crop that will be able to be hand-tilled into the soil come spring. I like to use a mix of Fava beans, Clover and Snow Peas to give a multi story nitrogen fixing cover crop. This mass will buffer the soil from the cold and reduce erosion caused by harsh winter storms, all while fixing Nitrogen into the soil. 

Plant the Margins with Snatch Crops!

Want to fit more harvest into your winter garden? Start with “snatch crops.” These are quick-growing plants that can fit into the margins of your main crops. I like to utilize radish, turnips and beets, as well as lettuce and arugula for this purpose, as they will happily grow in the understory and edges of my main garden spaces.

This equates to bonus harvests! When one begins to get large enough to disturb the larger vegetable above *(such as broccoli, collards or kale), it is time to harvest the understory snatch crop and reseed again.

Thermal Mass Kicks A$*

Greenhouse builders Penn and Cord Parmenter design thermal mass greenhouses that produce year-round tomatoes at 8,000-foot elevation in Colorado! How do they do it? The answer is in thermal mass. Thermal mass helps to slow the cooling of the soil temperatures at night by slow releasing trapped heat from the day.

To add thermal mass to protect more frost-sensitive plants, Cort and Penn have success by putting 1-gallon milk jugs full of water and basketball-sized boulders around plants. These options will both buffer night low temperatures and delay the day’s heat at night.

Winter Crops:

• Broccolini
• Green Onion
• Collard Greens
• Sweet Peas
• Snow peas
• Fava Beans

Winter companions?

• Try beets and garlic together
• Try parsley with carrots

Snatch Crops:

• Beets
• Turnips
• Radish
• Lettuce
• Arugula

Joshua Burman Thayer is a landscape designer and permaculture consultant with Native Sun Gardens. He is the Urban Agriculture Supervisor for Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation in San Francisco, Calif. Find him at Native Sun Gardens and read his other MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


abundant fields greenhouse

The greenhouse Rick Reddaway, owner of Abundant Fields Farm, built on his small farm.  

Click here to read Part 1 of this series.

In farming, as in most business endeavors, increasing revenue is the result of successfully expanding your market. But when one is just beginning, it’s hard to know how much expansion is needed. Is the goal to find an acre to lease somewhere? Or maybe shoot for the moon and actually try to buy a dozen acres with a house. Most likely the reality lies somewhere in between the two, but only research will provide an accurate gauge. So to get a sense of what kind of money might be needed and what opportunities might realistically exist, Rick has begun exploring the possibilities.

Recently he spoke with a representative from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency about one of that agency’s farm ownership loan programs. What he discovered is that he’s a long ways from where a loan manager would want him to be in order to achieve the high end of the success scale.

“He asked me what my gross sales were,” related Rick, “so I told him where I was. He didn’t say anything right then, but a little later he said he’d like to see our gross sales in the $30,000 to $50,000 range to start talking about a farm loan. I’m nowhere near that, and I’ll admit that kind of put a damper on my dreams a little. But I have to keep in mind that’s just one loan program. There are lots of other possibilities.”

Those possibilities include operating loans and micro loans among other things. Rick believes getting a micro loan to help with operating expenses might be a good place to start. That would enable him to develop a successful credit relationship and set the stage for something larger like a farm down payment loan down the road. An alternative approach is to step back from the ‘perfect world scenario’ and realize there are a lot of ways to be happy farming.

Abundant Fields Farm lettuce mix

Rick's lettuce mix has consistently been one of his best sellers. 

Rick related the story of a young farmer he knows who went through Oregon State’s Beginning Urban Farmer Apprenticeship (BUFA) program but didn’t have a solid plan when he finished. The guy just started looking around and found a small produce market on the east side of Portland that had three-quarters of an acre of land sitting untouched behind it. So he reached an agreement with the market owner to farm that three-quarters of an acre and sell his produce at the market.

Then there was another incubator farmer, a couple actually, who contacted the owner of a vacant lot right on Portland’s Stark Street and asked if they could farm it, and the owner said okay. So now they farm a lot on Stark and an acre at Headwaters.

Telling these stories has to help Rick feel a little better about the future. There was nothing special about these other farmers, so there’s no reason for him to believe things won’t work the same for him. But he also acknowledges that one of the most important keys to any opportunities he may encounter is more sales, which means scaling up his production and improving his marketing efforts.

Currently Rick sells his produce at two farmers markets, and there are a lot of positives in that. He points out that he gets retail prices, and the time he spends at the markets interacting with his customers is one of the most fun and fulfilling things he does. Unfortunately, there’s a limit to how much he’s been able to sell. So he’s starting to talk to other farmers to glean ideas and learn about other directions he might be able to go.

“Restaurants are something that I’d like to get into,” said Rick. “One friend of mine sells to restaurants exclusively, and he’s doing great, so I’m trying to learn what I can from him. I’m also looking at a few core crops I might be able to specialize in a little more, like peppers. I’ve recently started growing peppers for a local hot sauce vendor called Marshall’s Haute Sauce Company. It’s just one small company, but a hundred pounds of serrano peppers is a lot for me. Plus, I just started talking to another small hot sauce maker who’s a vendor at the Montavilla Farmers Market. His business is called Hard Times Hot Sauce, and we’ve begun making some plans for the next growing season.”

Fall cabbage

Rick produces outstanding quality vegetables on his incubator farm, but he continues to look for the right product and client mix. 

In addition to expanding the production of some of his core crops, Rick is considering diversifying by possibly adding meat birds or some type of animal component to his repertoire. Headwaters does allow its farmers to include livestock in their business plan, so this seems like it would be a negotiable possibility for him. On the other hand, both expanding crop production and adding other dimensions to his operation begs the question of just how much can one person do? Which means that adding an employee or seeking some type of partnership then becomes one more challenge that Rick knows must be faced.

“There’s all this stuff that I never thought about when I started this,” he said. “I know I keep coming back to that, but it seems like there’s something new all the time. But, you know, every discovery I make, I’m still excited about it. I feel like every step is a measure of success for me. It is kind of scary at times, but it’s all a positive. Out of everything I could be doing, I prefer this. And I do believe that we’ll have our farm, one way or another.”

This profile is excerpted from Planting A Future: Profiles from Oregon's New Farm Movement. Get your copy now.

All photos by Lisa D. Holmes.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


An underrated variety of poultry, geese are a great addition to any farm. Contrary to common misconceptions, most geese are friendly and dedicated to their owners. Not only will they form lifelong bonds with the feathered partners, but they can be equally dedicated to the person who raises them. Here are a few more fun facts you might not have known about these special birds.

Toulouse gosling

1. Goose is actually the term for female geese, male geese are called ganders. A group of geese on land or in water are a gaggle, while in the air they are called a skein.

2. European geese descend from wild greylag geese, birds with short necks and round bodies. Asian geese, the breeds now known as African and Chinese, descend from the swan goose and have long, elegant necks and a distinct knob on their beaks.

3. Geese were probably the first type of poultry domesticated by humans, over 3000 years ago in Egypt.

4. Geese can live up to twenty years if well cared for.

5. Ducks and geese are some of the only domesticated poultry that imprint on humans. They will bond with the person who feeds them as a chick, and remain dedicated to that person as their surrogate “parent” throughout their lives.

6. The size and shape of geese vary greatly. The long, slender Chinese goose is often just over 10 pounds, whereas breeds developed for meat production, such as the Embden and Toulouse, can be in excess of 30lbs.

7. Geese are highly social animals. If they are raised around other livestock and fowl, they usually get along well with them.

8. Contrary to popular belief, farmyard geese are not monogamous and a male usually has a harem of three or four. They are, however, extremely dedicated partners and will mourn the loss of a mate. A goose raised alone on a farm will often bond with another animal in place of its mate.

9. The inside of a goose's beak, and its tongue, are serrated. This can make it appear as though they have fangs, but the bumps are actually for cutting through succulent grass stems.

10. Geese are herbivores. Apart from nibbling on an occasional meal worm, their diets consist of fresh grass and other greenery. They can be picky eaters, flattening a bed of lettuce but not touching the spinach nearby.

11. Geese have been used for guarding, thanks to their protective nature and loud voices, for centuries. Geese guarded the temple of Juno in ancient Rome, protected a Scottish brewery, and continue guard police stations in rural China.

12. In Victorian England geese were a regular companion of the chimney sweep. A goose would be sent down the chimney to collect the built up coal, coming out the other end black with soot.

13. In another surprising historical use of geese, the first golf balls were stuffed with goose feathers. These balls were handmade and extremely expensive.

14. Goose eggs incubate for approximately thirty days, and can be babysat by chicken or duck mothers if you do not have a broody goose. Many goose breeds have fertility issues, and keeping a low number of females to each male will help them to produce fertile eggs.

15. Geese are excellent weeders and during the early days of commercial agriculture goose farmers would supplement their income by renting flocks out to cotton farms for a chemical-free weeding solution.

Kirsten Lie-Nielsen farms about 2 acres of a suburban homestead using geese for weeding and guarding purposes, raising chickens for eggs, bees for honey, and maintaining vegetable gardens for personal use. Recently she has begun work restoring an old farm in hopes of farming full time in the future. Find her online at Days Ferry Organics Blog.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


Carrot shapes

Carrot shapes are influenced by soil texture.

As you pull carrots out of your garden this fall, you can use the roots to get an idea about your soil's quality. You might have already noticed the differences in shape between carrots grown in different parts of your garden in year past. For example, did you ever dig up a bed of carrots and find that all of the roots had split and twisted into a jumbled mess? Sometimes, carrots curl around each other because you didn't thin the crop sufficiently. But splitting, gnarled carrots that aren't closely intertwined are generally a sign that your soil is either compacted or is full of pebbles and rocks.

Soil compaction

Compacted soil (on the right) lacks both the small and the large pores that allow roots, rain, and air to move efficiently through the earth. Often, a hardpan layer (darker brown in the drawing, but not distinguished by color in actual soil) develops just beneath the level that a plow or rototiller can reach.

What do I mean by compacted soil? Even though the earth seems solid when we're striding across it, as soon as you start peering closely at the dirt, you'll notice lots of air spaces between the grains. Unfortunately, it's relatively easy to mash your soil down so those air spaces disappear, a process known as compaction.

Simply walking on your garden soil can remove air spaces, which is why many gardeners create permanent aisles and beds, concentrating all of their foot traffic in certain sacrifice zones. Traditional tilling also creates compaction issues, especially if your soil is heavy or if you till when the ground is too wet or too dry. So your first step in dealing with compaction is changing your own habits so the problem won't come back.

What's next? You can physically fluff up soil with the broadfork, a tool that opens up spaces between soil particles without turning the layers of the earth. But before you rush out and buy expensive tools, I should tell you that moderately compacted soil often responds just as well to the action of biotillage cover crops like oilseed radishes. These deep-rooted plants easily push their roots through hard layers of soil, leaving biopores behind after they rot in place and increasing soil organic-matter levels in the process.

Okay, I know I just threw a technical term at you, but biopores are pretty easy to understand (and even to see in your soil). These large air channels start at the surface of the ground and run several feet into the earth, turning the openings into superhighways for soil-dwelling critters like earthworms. Meanwhile, biopores give roots quick access to other parts of the earth profile and also make it easier for rain to infiltrate deeply rather than running off during deluges. Finally, biopores promote faster carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange between the air in your soil and the air above, which helps encourage the aerobic microorganisms who do such good work decomposing organic matter and providing nutrients for your crops.

Side-view of a raised bed

The easiest way for a gardener to see soil-pore formation in action is to take away one of the boards supporting the side of a raised bed. You'll likely notice earthworm channels, smaller pores that follow roots, and the crumbly structure of good soil. Photo credit: Brian Cooper.

Biopores aren't the be-all and end-all of soil structure, though. In fact, much smaller channels between soil aggregates are just as important for healthy crops. These minuscule pathways do some of the same work as biopores, helping with air exchange and water management for example. But the smaller air cavities work a bit differently—rather than helping rain soak into the earth, mini-pores ensure that your soil can hold onto the falling water so all of the moisture doesn't drain away between storms. Small channels also allow water to move upwards from the groundwater into the root zone during droughts via capillary action, so they're doubly important for ensuring your crops find enough water to grow and thrive.

What can a gardener do to produce these essential, tiny channels between soil aggregates? The best solution is to add lots of organic matter and then beg your soil microorganisms to do the work for you. In fact, spreading mulches and other amendments directly onto the soil surface is like putting up a sign reading "Seeking earthworms—apply within." Worms will inevitably show up eat the tasty treats in situ, then they'll poop out high-nutrient castings deeper in the earth. And while moving between the two locations, the worms create—you guessed it—holes in the soil for roots and air to follow.

A third type of even smaller pore is created when minuscule soil particles are chemically bound together into aggregates, which range in size from nearly too small to see all the way up to several inches in diameter. These aggregates usually begin forming when roots or fungi increase in girth while thrusting their way through the soil, an act that pushes soil particles together on either side of the roots or fungal hairs. This slight compression of the soil is then cemented into more long-lived aggregates when microorganisms eat nearby organic matter and create gummy secretions to bind the soil particles in place. Next, calcium ions in the soil merge small aggregates together into larger particles known as peds.

Okay, that got a bit technical, but the bottom line is simple. Tiny air channels in soil form between soil aggregates, and soil aggregates form due to living things like roots and fungi doing their job deep in the earth. Larger pores form along earthworm channels, and yet more massive channels are due to the work of deep-rooted crops.

In the end, promoting healthy critters promotes healthy soil. And healthy soil means straight, unbranched carrots—gotta love it when you can eat your report card!

Personality Tests For Your Soil

Did you enjoy this excerpt from Personality Tests For Your Soil? If so, you can learn more easy ways to gauge the health of your garden earth in the ebook, on sale for 99 cents this week.

Anna Hess enjoys writing about her adventures, both on her blog at Walden Effect and in her books. Her first paperback, The Weekend Homesteader, helped thousands of homesteaders-to-be find ways to fit their dreams into the hours leftover from a full-time job. Hess is also the author of The Naturally Bug-Free Garden, Trailersteading, The Ultimate Guide to Soil, and several ebook-only titles. She lives with her husband in the mountains of southwest Virginia.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


“Harvest your mistakes” is one of the key principles of permaculture — the idea that we can at least learn from our choices, if not eat them in the garden and in life. I have been harvesting my mistakes this month, as the season winds down and the leaf mulch piles up. What have we learned this year?


1. Austrian Field Peas are an excellent summer mulch!

I planted the field peas right after bringing up the potato crop in mid August. They germinated quickly with light irrigation, put on considerable growth, and survived the rampages of one hungry bunny and four chickens before I fenced them off. For three months, they grew lushly — then we lost them to mini-slugs. However, three months of nitrogen-fixing cover crop, followed by a pile of leaf mulch, is nothing to sneeze at. I will do this again.


2. Mini-cloches work better on established seedlings than direct sown seeds.

I did a small experiment with my vining crops in the spring. I planted half of them in four inch pots and raised the seedlings on the potting bench, then planted them out, covered with a mini-cloche fashioned from a gallon vinegar or milk jug. The other half of the packet was direct seeded and placed under the mini-cloche.  The transplanted crops germinated more quickly, grew better, and were far stronger than the direct-seeded ones. I will stick with my old methods on this one.

3. Never say never.

After sneering at planters made from old bathroom fixtures for years, I was saddled with an old bathtub this summer. I had found it for free years ago and it was part of our outdoor shower—but, with the new greenhouse came a new old tub, bigger and better — so…after it sat in the ivy for a month, I gave in and hauled it to the back corner of the yard, behind the beehive, and filled it with soil. Next summer, it will hold bee-friendly bloomers, so that the honey bees have food close to home. Re-purposing.

4. Don’t brag in print!

Last spring, one of my MEN posts was about the beauty of my garlic bed. A month later, when I went to harvest the crop, it  had succumbed to a mildew that have invaded the Willamette Valley. The bulbs were tiny or non-existent. The tops all wilted and toppled over.  Although I do think it is still a good spot for the crop, I will never brag again before the harvest!

5. We're almost there in timing for fall crops.

Having harvested broccoli and cauliflower from my fall bed, I can say that my new timing system, involving four inch pots before the Summer Solstice and using a early potato bed for fall crops does work. However, early cabbages are more likely to head up than later ones: in my Territorial cabbage seed mix, cabbages number one and two have done well, while number four has failed, not just in my garden, but in the gardens of three friends as well.

Now that the season is over, I will spend some time by the fire, thinking about next years experiments and goals. First on the list — one day projects only!

Charlyn Ellis has been growing vegetables since she was five years old, when her mother bought her her first rake and pitchfork. She and her family are urban homesteaders and have a large organic vegetable garden, fruit trees, a beehive, four chickens, one rabbit, and two cats on a small urban lot in the center of town, surrounded by college students. Charlyn considers permaculture principles when she makes changes in her designs, especially the idea that the problem is the solution. Find her online at 21st Street Urban Homestead, and read all of Charlyn's MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.



Last month, I wrote about Mistakes to Avoid When Putting New Plastic on Your Hoophouse.

Here are my recommendations on how to go about the task.

Planning the Plastic Installation Day

This job is best done in mild sunny weather, when the plastic will be dry and can stretch some but not too much. Arrange for a windless day to spread plastic – that is, less than 5mph winds, tops! If only breezy days are available, do the plastic spreading at dusk, when the wind drops. Or at dawn in summer, but not in cold weather.

Order the right size and type of plastic in good time. We use 48’ x 100’ Tufflite IV and Tufflite Dripless for our 30’ x 96’ gothic tunnel. Our plastic goes to the ground (no separate sidewalls). For the end walls we buy 24’ x 100’ for a double layer on each end. We use the wigglewire and aluminum channels (also called Polylock).

Get enough people committed. We like six people with good common sense, who are willing to take directions. It helps if some of them have done the job before. Consider having someone take photos of key stages, to make next time easier.

List of tools

• Tall stepladder and 2 pairs of shorter stepladders
• Small-nosed pliers and a flat-bladed screwdriver for each person and a pair of  bolt cutters (for the wigglewire)
• Tennis balls to tie into the edge of the plastic, and ropes to pull the plastic over the top. About 5 sets for a 96’ house. Use ropes long enough to go up and over to the other side – say 10’ longer than the width of your plastic.
• A sock and a plastic water bottle (to attach to the throwing end of the rope)
• Polypatch tape and scissors. Accidents will happen. Try to be gracious and forgiving!
• Utility knives to trim the plastic when you are completely sure it’s on right.
• For end walls, old drip-tape for battening (or buy actual batten tape, if you can’t get old drip tape), scissors, long staples and staple guns.
• For a 30’ x 96’ tunnel, at least 6 rolls of high quality duct tape. Stinginess doesn’t pay.

Step-by-step Instructions for Installing Plastic

1. Turn off the electricity to the inflation blower.

2. Loosen just the ends of the wigglewire with pliers (and a screwdriver to ‘pick up’ the ends) all the way round.

3. If you are keeping the inner plastic and only replacing the outer piece, remove each piece of wigglewire, extract the outer plastic, then tack the center few wiggles of each wigglewire back in the channel to hold the inner plastic. If replacing both pieces, simply remove the wigglewires, but don’t lose them in the grass.

4. Pull off the old outer plastic, and either roll it up as it is, or cut it into 10’ wide lengths for future low tunnels. If you might want to use it to recover the hoophouse in an emergency, don’t cut it now. If the grass is damp, see #20.

5. Detach the blower and jumper hoses from the inner plastic.

6. Remove the inner plastic and roll it up, entire or in pieces.

7. Put new high-quality duct tape over all the metal frame connectors.


8. Unroll the new inner plastic outside the hoophouse along one side, keeping the surface which will be on the outside (top) dry. There are different opinions about whether the IR (Infrared Reflecting)/Condensate Control inner plastic has a right side and a wrong side. When we bought Warp’s Flex-o-glas inner plastic in 2003, they told us the treatment is throughout the plastic, not a coating, so it doesn’t matter which side is up.

9. Mark the center of the new inner plastic while it is still folded, to help with alignment. Or use any manufacturer’s writing on the plastic to keep plastic roughly straight.

10. Tie tennis balls in gathered-up plastic along the long edge which is on top of the unrolled but still folded plastic.

11. Tie a plastic water bottle in a sock to the free end of one of the ropes and throw it over the top of the hoophouse. Adjust the amount of water in the bottle to give a suitable weight.

12. Untie the socked water bottle on the far side, bring it back and repeat with each of the other ropes.

13. Agree with your crew on a set of instructions, especially to call “Stop!” if everyone should stop while a problem is fixed.

14. Slowly and evenly, pull the plastic up and over the top of the frame until the edge reaches the ground along the whole length on the far side. If the plastic gets snagged up on the framework, have someone (on a stepladder?) use the sweeping end of a broom or  a SnoBrum on a telescoping pole if you have one, to lift and push the plastic free.

15. Start at one gable end on both sides and work in a coordinated way to the other end, shimmying the plastic around until it covers the whole frame and is square. You won’t want ripples and waves across your hoophouse.

16. Using the middles of lengths of wigglewire, tack the plastic into the channel, at least once every 12’ down the length of the hoophouse, on the baseboards (or the hip-board, if you have roll-up or drop-down sides). Don’t pull the plastic too tight.

17. When all seems good, work in pairs to attach your jumper hoses and inflation hose. You won’t be able to access the outside after you put the outer plastic on. Be sure to start with under-size holes in the plastic and stretch them to fit.

18. Refit your manometer now or later, before turning on the blower. If later, be sure not to cut the outer plastic when you make the hole for the tubing.

19. Unroll the outer plastic outside the hoophouse along one side, keeping the surface which will be on the inside (down) dry. If the grass is damp, use the old plastic as a carpet, and unroll the new plastic on top. You don’t want to trap moisture between the layers of plastic. Additionally, water between the layers will cause the two pieces to stick to each other and it will be hard to pull the second one over.

20. Mark the center of the new outer plastic while it is still folded, to help with alignment.

21. Repeat the tennis balls trick until the outer plastic is in position. It won’t have any metal framework to snag on. It should be easier. Make sure it can’t snag on the ends of the wigglewire sticking out from the baseboard.

22. Allowing a little slack, or at least pulling on the plastic only enough to avoid wrinkles, remove the wigglewires one at a time, put the outer plastic in place, and tack both layers in the channel with the middles of the wigglewires. Pulling the plastic too tight can result in the plastic rupturing in cold weather.

23. Using stepladders as needed, fit the plastic into the channels at one gable end, starting at the peak. An occasional little pleat is OK and will give you some slack. Your goal is a bubble 6-12” deep between the inflated layers, once it’s all done and running. Set the wigglewires fully, using pliers to grasp the wire ends and tuck them into the channel. Mark the ends of the wigglewires on the plastic as you go, using a really permanent marker, to make them easier to find when it’s time to replace the plastic (again).

24. Starting at the finished end, work down each side, doing the final setting of the wigglewires along the baseboards/hipboards. Trim the wigglewire if needed at the far end. If you are doing this with just two people, start at one end, fix 3 bays on one side, repeat on the opposite side, and continue switching from side to side. With two crews you can do both sides at once.

25. If you feel confidant, trim the plastic now, all the way round, leaving a 6-12” border. If you think there could be a problem that might involve resetting the plastic, leave it overnight.

26. Turn on the blower in the morning and check every few hours, adjusting the air intake as appropriate. (Best not to turn it on at night and leave it, in case you over-inflate and stress the plastic.)

27. Tidy up and write any helpful notes for next time.

Pam Dawling lives in Virginia at Twin Oaks Community, an egalitarian, secular, income-sharing, work-sharing ecovillage established in 1967. There she helps grow food for around 100 people on three and a half acres and provides training in sustainable vegetable production for community members, practicing farming with awareness of ecology, finite resources and the future of the planet. Pam is the author of Sustainable Market Farming. Read all of her MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Best Blogging Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.



Nothing feels quite like being outside and working with your hands in the soil and with plants. The type of garden does not really matter; it could be a vegetable garden, flowerbed, fruit tree orchard, or water garden. It seems that the combination of being outside, personally connecting with nature, and seeing visible results from our work has a positive effect on us. But are there more benefits to gardening than simply making us “feel good?”

There are the obvious benefits of gardening which we all know about: gardens provide healthful food, they can be aesthetically pleasing, and they save on food costs. But Gerber (2011) points out that gardening has many overall benefits that we commonly do not think about from it reducing stress to improving the environment. Going further, some other not so obvious benefits include teaching patience as gardening is on nature’s schedule; as the saying goes, “watching a plant grow does not make it grow any faster.” ‘Unplugging’ and disconnecting from technology is frequently encouraged now. Creativity is encouraged through planning the layout of gardens and flowerbeds. Lastly, gardening provides a good form of exercise because it burns calories while strengthening and stretching muscles.

Researchers have found that there actually is truth to the idea of gardening being therapeutic. Studies have shown that gardening does more than makes us feel good or produces fruits and vegetables for us to eat.  Gardening, also known as horticulture therapy, has been used by occupational therapists to assist the elderly with dementia and promote the physical and social health of those with developmental disabilities.  As an occupational therapy student, I have learned that one of my professors successfully uses gardening to help veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury.

Numerous studies have shown the positive effects of gardening as a therapy. In a preliminary study by Detweiler et al. (2015), horticultural therapy may have been responsible for reduced stress and depression, increased quality of life, and avoidance of substance abuse in veterans. Wang and Glicksman (2013) discovered a long list of benefits to older adults when they garden, including providing new learning, staying connected to their roots, socialization, and improving their well-being. Gonzalez and Kirkevold (2013) performed a review of studies to learn of the benefits of sensory gardens and horticultural therapy for those with dementia. The authors concluded that horticultural therapy may improve an individual’s sense of well-being, decrease troublesome behavior, improve sleep, reduce the number of serious falls, and improve the individual’s use of psychotropic medications.

Camic (2013) conducted a literature review of studies which used horticulture therapy as a mental health intervention. The results appear quite promising in reducing an individual’s anxiety and depression. Participants of the gardening therapy had also been noted to have improved emotional well-being, social interaction, and physical health, as well as the chance for career development.

Somewhat similar to Camic’s study, Park and VanLeit (2012) identified that adults with developmental disabilities often have cognitive impairments as well, which further complicates their treatments. These adults tend to have greater health risks than the general population, such as diabetes, sedentary lifestyles, and cardiovascular disease. The researchers performed a study on a gardening program for adults with developmental disabilities and saw an improvement in physical, social, and mental health as well as overall well-being.

While many of us garden for the simple pleasure of it, it is being increasingly used as a therapeutic treatment for those with disabilities. Horticulture therapy has been shown to assist those with physical, social, and mental needs.  It may not be the ‘cure all,’ but it has its place as benefiting many forms of disabilities. It appears that over time, horticulture therapy will become a more commonly used therapy for what ails a great deal of the population. For many of us, relieving stress, providing nutritious food, and receiving a sense of reward for hard work is enough of a satisfying accomplishment.

Photo by Fotolia/EduardSV: There are many benefits to spending time in a garden, even beyond having fresh, healthful produce!


Camic, P. M. (2013). Gardening as a mental health intervention: A review. Mental Health Review Journal, 18(4), 214-225. doi: 10.1108/MHRJ-02-2013-0007

Detweiler, M. B., Self, J. A., Lane, S., Spencer, L., Lutgens, B., Kim, D…Lehman, L. (2015). Horticultural therapy: A pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans. Alternative Therapies, 21(4), 36-41.

Gerber, J. (2011, March 28). 5 benefits of gardening.

Gonzalez, M. T. & Kirkevold, M. (2013). Benefits of sensory garden and horticultural activities in dementia care: A modified scoping review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23, 2698-2715. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12388

Park, H. & VanLeit, B. (2012). The meaning of gardening for adults with developmental disabilities. Special Interest Section Quarterly: Developmental Disabilities, 35(1), 1-3.

Wang, D. & Glicksman, A. (2013). “Being grounded”: Benefits of gardening for older adults in low-income housing. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 27, 89-104. doi: 10.1080/02763893.2012.754816

Susan O’Brien is an occupational therapy student in the master’s program at Utica College.

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