With chaya and I it was love at first taste. I'm not usually a huge fan of cooked greens but there's something about the hearty, somewhat sweet taste of boiled chaya greens that keeps me reloading my plate.
In my recent post on growing Chinese Water Chestnuts, I told you that I'd be back with a look at other good perennial vegetables for the home garden. Today we'll look at chaya. The Latin name of chaya is Cnidoscolus chayamansa and it's also known colloquially as Mexican Tree Spinach. Some varieties have stinging hairs (my cultivar does not), some have deeply lobed leaves, and others have broad leaves (like the main type I grow) that vaguely resemble maple.
A few years ago my permaculture-minded friend Craig Hepworth gave me a couple of cuttings and I popped them in the ground. I was interested but not all that excited about a new green vegetable (I like roots and fruits!). About six months later my chaya plants had grown to about 4' tall and I figured they could spare some leaves for the table. Since chaya, like its cousin cassava, is slightly toxic raw, I fired up a pot full of water and threw in a fistful of freshly cut greens. I didn't expect much when I pulled a limp mess of steaming greens from the pot and transferred them to my plate. But wow... they were good. Now I'd never go without at least a few chaya plants in my yard.
Some greens, like amaranth and Ethiopian kale, can handle some of the heat of summer: chaya thrives in it. Chaya's problem comes in the winter. This plant originated in the tropics and simply can't stand freezing. Since I live in North Florida, I worried about losing it in the cold the first year I grew it, particularly when the frosts came and I saw my plants wilt and the stems brown out. The next spring, though, they were back - and happier than ever. New growth popped up in April and rapidly grew. At this time of year I have plants that are about 6' - and we've been harvesting leaves since June.
And that's another thing - chaya produces greens like crazy. It's considered to be one of the most productive leaf crops in cultivation. If you live further north than its natural range, chaya can be successfully grown in a pot and brought indoors as a house plant during freezing weather.
I've found these guys to be quite tolerant of a wide range of conditions and soil. I've grown them in shade and in sun; in poor soil and in rich. They're not picky. I've also cut stems and had them continue to live and even bud while lying in my greenhouse unplanted for months. That's my kind of plant.
The best place to find chaya is to ask around among your friends for cuttings. If that doesn't work, you can buy chaya cuttings here or search the web. Prices and varieties vary from site to site and this isn't really a plant that you'll find in local nurseries, so thank God for the internet!
Something else that's wonderful about chaya: the butterflies love the tiny white flowers it produces. We have a chaya bush off the side of our back porch and it's constantly being visited by a procession of zebra longwings. I don't know what they find so attractive, but they're always there.
As a part of the landscaping, chaya is an attractive tropical-looking plant with an interesting growth habit that I think would fit into almost any garden plan. I grow kale, collards, turnips, beets and lettuce through the winter... but chaya gets us through the summer and early fall.
Try a taste sometime and I think you'll fall in love just like I did.
For more daily gardening inspiration, plant profiles, rare edibles and homesteading, check out David's website at www.floridasurvivalgardening.com.
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Creole garlics are a resilient type of hardneck whose demure white wrappers hide a lush, vibrant interior. Believed to originate in Spain, Creole cultivars are highly regarded by garlic aficionados for both their delicious taste and their long storage capability. Creole cultivars commonly seen in North America include Creole Red, Rose de Lautrec (photo), and Ajo Rojo.
Creoles thrive in hot, drier climates in which most other hardneck garlics typically struggle. They tend to be highly adaptable, with successive generations of plants acclimatizing to their specific growing conditions. Conversely, they are heavily influenced by yearly climate fluctuations, which can make them difficult to grow, especially if you are looking for a consistent product year-to-year.
The plants are usually tall, with leaves that vary between cultivars and climate from a pale lime to deep green. Normally modest bolters, Creoles do tend to bolt more heavily in regions with a moderate climate. The scapes of some cultivars will produce gentle curls; others will merely exhibit a graceful droop. Umbels are narrow and long, and contain between five and thirty small to medium-sized umbels. The scapes must be harvested in a timely manner, otherwise bulbs size will be significantly reduced. The bulbs themselves are comparatively late to mature, and so are harvested later in the season.
The bulbs produced by Creole cultivars are somewhat petite although they often increase in size through successive generations and optimal growing conditions. Although small, the bulbs are plump and round with lustrous white outer wrappers. Peeling back these creamy skins often reveals the most vibrant clove skins of any garlic type: deep, vibrant, glossy reds and purples. Clove size varies between cultivars, as those that contain fewer cloves tend to be more rounded and plump, while those containing greater numbers are somewhat thinner and more elongated.
Cultivars produce cloves that are medium to large in size, with average numbers ranging between four and twelve per bulb. The majority are arranged in a single layer around the central stem, like other hardnecks, but some cultivars will also produce small inner cloves which subsequently results in the cloves becoming more irregular in size, shape, and number.
Creole cultivars are highly prized for their rich flavor. Even though individual palates differ widely and the taste of different garlic types and cultivars can be very subjective, when described, words such as ‘earthy’, ‘musky’, and ‘sweet’ tend to be consistently be used to describe the Creole group. While most of the Creole cultivars hold these characteristics in common, the heat and pungency of each tend to vary from the delicate to the robust, making this type of garlic one that, although good when cooked, is especially enjoyable and versatile when consumed raw.
When stored properly, Creole garlics have a long storage time of approximately six to nine months, with some cultivars keeping in good condition for up to a year. Their flavor also tends to deepen and mature as they store, making them well worth keeping while you enjoy your less storage-prone varieties first!
Rose de Lautrec' - photo courtesy of Bart Nagel, Bulbs of Fire.
The use of animal manure in organic farming has been significant in the sustainable agriculture movement. Manure is a great source of many crop nutrients, including both micronutrients and macronutrients. Nitrogen is typically the nutrient with the most value, as well as the greatest potential for soil and water pollution. Quality and potential for contamination are both factors when learning how to use manure and selecting a manure source. Similarly, there are concerns with food safety when applying manure, and specific application guidelines have been designed to reduce the risk of pathogen contamination.
Nutrients are essential to proper growth of all plants, and farmers carefully plan to provide them, including finding the best source of manure for their nitrogen needs. Different animals produce manure with variable nutrient content, and some manure sources are more readily available and cost effective than others.
Manure from layer poultry, for example, provides nearly four times the nitrogen per ton as that from lactating cows. It also contains upwards of 12 times the potassium and phosphorus content of dairy manure. However, poultry manure is more costly than dairy manure — sometimes running twice the price. Poultry manure can also burn plants because of the large quantity of nitrogen it contains, so it’s generally composted or aged before being applied to a garden or farm. Another option is to apply it to a fallow field months before planting, so the soil microorganisms can break down the nutrients and make them more available to the plant. Whatever method is used, it’s important to note that under the best conditions only about half to three-quarters of the nitrogen in the manure is available to the crop in the year it’s applied. The remaining nitrogen will become available over a period of years. That’s why it’s important to regularly sample the soil to determine nutrient needs for the year. It’s also key to monitor crop nitrogen needs so that manure isn’t over-applied, contributing to contamination of water by ammonia, organic matter, nutrients and bacteria.
Another factor to consider when selecting a manure source is potential contaminants. Some contaminants, such as heavy metals, can be avoided by requesting a laboratory analysis. Heavy metals are a concern in manure, since there can be high potential content and farmers may also use high application rates. Heavy metals present in manure may include cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic. Poultry manure is particularly at high risk for arsenic contamination, because nonorganic chickens are often fed arsenic to promote growth and weight gain. For this reason, poultry manure from organic sources is popular.
Another way to avoid heavy metals in manure is to select an Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) Listed manure product. OMRI requires heavy metals to be below a certain threshold before listing the product for use in organic production. Although other contaminants are present in manure, heavy metals are the easiest to avoid. Contaminants such as hormones and antimicrobials are difficult to even identify because they are so pervasive in the conventional manure supply, and there are no guidelines in place to control this contamination. Finding an organic source of manure is therefore the best way to avoid many potential hazards.
The application of manure also has implications for food safety. Pathogens such as Salmonella and fecal coliform are the main concerns when applying manure to edible crops. The USDA organic regulations require that a harvest interval be followed after applying manure, where crops in contact with soil (carrots, potatoes, lettuce) may be harvested only after 120 days, and crops not in contact with soil (blueberries, apples, peppers) may be harvested after 90 days. The logic behind this harvest interval is that pathogens will likely be rendered unviable by soil microorganisms after a certain time period, and will no longer pose a threat to food safety.
Another way to avoid pathogens from manure is to compost it first. One can purchase raw manure and compost it, or it can be purchased already composted. Both methods are effective at reducing the risk of pathogen contamination when applying these materials to an organic farm. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether a purchased compost product may pose a contamination hazard. The organic standards require a specific time period and temperature for composting, in order to ensure that any pathogens are, in fact, eliminated. Compost that does not meet these requirements is considered to be the same as raw manure, which means that application rates must meet the 90/120-day harvest interval requirements listed above. OMRI Listed products may fall into either category, so it can be helpful to research compost products on the OMRI Products List. OMRI’s restriction text will indicate whether the harvest interval periods must be observed.
Anaerobic digestion is a new technology that has been used to process manure into a composted product. The use of anaerobic digestion is especially growing on conventional livestock farms, where large amounts of manure are produced and increasing regulations require proper disposal. Typically, manure is gathered in a lagoon or tank, where microbes break it down in an oxygen-free environment. Some anaerobic digesters have external heating systems to achieve pathogen reduction, similar to traditional composts. Although anaerobic digestion is similar to composting, it must achieve the same time and temperature requirements in order to be used without a harvest interval. Before using an anaerobic digestion product, one should verify whether it was heated to at least 131 degrees Fahrenheit for three or more days. If not, the harvest interval must be observed. The resulting components of the digestion process include a liquid effluent rich in nutrients, and dry matter that is great as a soil amendment or even as biodegradable planting pots. Methane is captured as a by-product and used as a renewable energy source, instead of being emitted into the environment as a greenhouse gas.
There’s no doubt that learning how to use manure and applying it amply is one of the best steps toward providing nutrients in a well-managed organic farm or garden. Animal manure has many positives that make it worth the trouble of seeking out the best source and applying it with care. Manure use also contributes to the recycling of resources, which further reduces the environmental impact of livestock production in general. So, the next time you bite into an organic tomato, pepper or ear of sweet corn, be sure to also thank the animals that provided the nutrients used to grow your delicious food.
Photo by Fotolia/Jack: An organic farmer works with manure in a field.
Thank you to OMRI Technical Director Lindsay Fernandez-Salvador for providing this guest blog post for MOTHER EARTH NEWS. She holds a B.S. from Oregon State University in Natural Resource Management and an M.S. from University of Florida in Geography. She has more than 10 years of work experience on both conventional and organic farms.
Canning is a great way to preserve your own harvest. You can also buy organic produce that is on sale from your local grocer or from your local farmers market. When the produce is in peak season, it is the most healthful and the least expensive of the year.When you can, you have to follow the recipe exactly to make sure it is safe to eat. When canning acidic foods like fruit or tomatoes, or anything using vinegar or sugar, you can likely use only a water bath. All other canning requires a pressure canner to get to high enough temperatures to kill off the bacteria that cause botulism.
Home Canning Resources
Here are some web pages and resources to use:
Mother Earth News How to Can app
National Center for Home Food Preservation
USDA’s Complete Guide to Home Canning
Home Canning website
Ball Complete Book of Home Preserving
The Complete Book of Small Batch Preserving
I bought a 1946 canning booklet from Amazon.com Steamliner Pressure Cooker-Instructions for Cooking and Canning so I could learn how to use the old fashioned canning jars. It was fun to read, complete with recipes! Okay, I thought, could I do some canning? My Granny canned during the summers I spent with her when I was little. We were growing tomatoes in our little flower/veggie garden. My handy Ball canning book revealed that tomatoes and fruits are high acid so they do not require a Pressure Canner; only a water bath was needed. Makes it an inexpensive experiment. I read that many canning lids also contain BPA. So, what other options were there? I found these glass lids in an antique store. I also bought the jars with the wire closure. All I needed now were the rubber seals and some directions!
I searched the web to see if I could find any instructions on how to use old-fashioned canning jars. No luck. Then I went to Amazon to see if there were any books on it. I found a 1946 pamphlet “Steamliner Pressure Cooker-Instructions for Cooking and Canning.” Success! It was great fun browsing the pamphlet. It was also very thorough in its instructions on how to use the old fashioned canning jars.
I went on line and ordered a variety of seals, sticking with ones that were not made in China and were natural rubber. I wasn’t able to find any that fit well with my cool, old fashioned jars. I also learned that the glass lids needed very tall rings. The modern ones were too short to close properly. Back to square one!
Choosing the Best Canning Jars
Then, I ran across an advertisement for these beautiful glass jar with glass lid made in Germany-Weck’s (it is the second from the right in the pic). Finally, a non-toxic jar! Later I discovered a plastic lid that is also BPA-free that can be used with modern jars made by Tattler, made in the USA since 1976. They are a seamless replacement for the metal lids. I was able to can a few using the old fashioned jars. The Weck’s work great. Easy to use, easy to know that the seal is good, and beautiful to look at. I highly recommend them.
All you really need when canning high-acid foods is a tall stock pot with lid, a jar lifter, a stainless steel spoon, a towel to put the hot jars on, and your canning jars.
For more tips on organic small space and container gardening, see Melodie's blog at www.victorygardenonthegolfcourse,com
Aunt Molly’s ground cherry preserves may have occupied a privileged spot in your great-aunt’s pantry, but you’ll be hard pressed to find them nowadays. Ground cherries (Physalis pruinosa) are an endangered heirloom. Their recorded heritage traces back to 1837, when they first appeared in Pennsylvania horticultural literature.
Once commonly grown in backyard gardens, ground cherries somehow lost their way. Though they are ridiculously easy to grow and store, ground cherries are difficult to transport. Urbanization and the movement away from growing one’s own food led to the demise of this golden gem. The good news is that they can be grown in containers or raised beds, they’re relative pest-free, and they produce abundant fruit from mid-summer through frost.
Ground cherries are really not cherries at all. They are members of the Solanaceae family, which includes tomatoes and tomatillos. Like the tomatillo, ground cherries grow inside a papery husk. When ripe, ground cherries turn bright yellow and fall to the ground. Though several varieties are native throughout the Americas and Eastern Europe (‘Aunt Molly’ is a Polish variety), ground cherries taste like tropical treats. Their pineapple — vanilla flavor brightens pies, jams, and chutneys. They are equally delicious eaten raw, dried, or cooked. Squirrels and small children are keen to ground cherries’ charms, so gardeners should keep a close look-out for ripe, fallen fruit.
How to Grow Ground Cherries
Ground cherries are frost tender and should be started indoors 6-8 weeks before spring planting in cooler climates. They’ll produce prolifically beginning 70 days from transplant, through the first fall frost. Good drainage and humus-rich soil ensure an abundant crop. Two to three plants grown in raised-beds or large pots will provide enough ground cherries for a season of tasty jams and pies, with a few left over for wildlife. Staking helps keep branches and fruit off the ground. Though they are sometimes susceptible to flee-beetles, ground cherries’ weed-like nature makes them fairly disease resistant. In addition to ‘Aunt Molly’s,’ tasty varieties to try include: Physalis pubescens ‘Cossack,’ Physalis pubescens ‘Goldie,’ and Physalis peruviana ‘Cape Gooseberry.’
Once harvested, ground cherries will continue to ripen, if placed in a well-ventilated container on the countertop. They will store for up to three months in a cool (50 degree) environment. They also store well when dried like raisins, either in a dehydrator, or by placing them in the oven on its lowest setting for several hours.
Ground Cherry Crumb Pie
6 c. ground cherries
1 c. granular sugar
1 tsp. almond extract
3 Tbsp. flour
¼ tsp. salt
prepared pie shell or crust
3/4 c. flour
1/2 c. brown sugar
¼ tsp. salt
3/4 c. unsalted butter, cut into pieces
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Combine ground cherries with filling ingredients: granular sugar, almond extract, flour, and salt.
For the topping: mix the remaining ingredients in a large bowl, using your hands or a pastry knife to blend butter into the dry ingredients.
Pour ground cherry mixture into the pie crust, and sprinkle crumb topping evenly on top.
Place the pie on top of a cookie sheet to catch any drippings.
Bake for 1 ½ hours, or until the fruit is bubbly and the topping is brown.
Cool for several hours before cutting.
Brenda Lynn is the author of www.BeeHappyGarden.com, a blog devoted to small-space, organic vegetable gardening, native plants, and beekeeping. She is a free-lance writer, garden coach, and outdoor educator in northern Virginia, where she lives and gardens in her suburban backyard.
Garlic is rich in lore. It has been reputed to repel vampires, clear the blood, cure baldness, aid digestion over the ages. Today’s studies have shown is garlic antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral. And, it tastes great! Garlic has been around for thousands of years. It originated in Asia, was cultivated in Egypt and has been a Mediterranean staple for centuries.It is easy to grow and has few pest issues. All you do is throw them in the ground in the fall in late September/early October in our Zone 6 garden and by early summer, they are ready to harvest.
The clove puts out roots in the fall. Depending on how warm the winter is, there can be green shoots showing through the cold months. Garlic will be some of the first to start growing. The stems resemble onion greens. The garlic flower, or scape, has a cute little curl in it. It grows on hard neck varieties. They are great in salads. Harvesting them also gives you bigger bulbs.
You should choose the biggest cloves to plant. The bigger the clove, the bigger the harvest! Cloves like other root vegetables like loose soil, compost and steady fertilizer. Like carrots, radishes and beets, you can add sand to give a looser soil structure in your garlic bed. Compost and mulch well in the fall before cold weather sets in. Plant the cloves root side down, 1-2” deep, and 4-6” apart. For planting by the cycle of the moon, garlic should be planted during the waning cycle of the moon. For our Zone 6 garden, this is September 9-23 and October 9-22. After the greens sprout to 6”, add compost or fertilizer as a side dressing. Garlic does not need a lot of nitrogen so compost is a good choice.
Garlic is ready to harvest then the tops fall over and die off. They are ready to harvest about a week later. Typically this is mid-summer.
Be careful when you go to harvest. If you cut the bulb, it will not keep and needs to eaten soon. The garlic should be left in dry shade for 2-3 weeks or brought inside and stored in a cool, dry location with good air circulation. They can be hung or placed in a perforated bin to dry and store. Store-bought garlic has been treated with chemicals to keep them from sprouting so they are not a great choice for growing your own. A great option is to buy cloves from your local farmers market. You know they grew well in your area. Just separate out the bulb(s) into individual cloves and plant the biggest ones.
Distinguishing Different Types of Garlic
Garlic can be mild or hot. Elephant garlic is very mild and not really true garlic at all. It is a type of leek. It has a great garlic flavor and produces huge bulbs. The ones I am growing this year are from the previous year’s harvest.
You can tell the difference in the two by looking at the flowers. Leeks and soft neck garlic have a onion type flower while garlic has a curly scape flower. There is soft and hard necked garlic. For storing, soft neck garlic is the ticket. It is also the strongest flavored. Hard necked is milder, easier to peel, more cold hardy and the first to mature.
Everyone knows of garlic in sauces and on cheese bread. A couple of years ago, we tried roasted garlic. It dramatically mellows the flavor. I just put a few heads in a small baking dish, add chicken stock to just about level to the cut heads, and let bake covered at 350 for 30-45 minutes, until soft. It is a great spread on French bread!
If your garlic dries up over the winter, I grind it into garlic powder. If you have great tasting garlic that doesn’t store well or you have a bountiful crop, another preservation option is pickled garlic. Just peel and cover your fresh garlic cloves in organic apple cider vinegar. You can add a couple of hot peppers if you want to add some extra zing!
Of course, you can also add garlic to the tomato sauce, pickles or peppers you are going to can. You can flavor vinegars or oils by popping crushed garlic into them. Many options for utilizing your garlic harvest!
A woman called me for some gardening advice a couple of weeks ago. She talked about various projects... fruit and vegetables, trees and shrubs... ...and then she said something so horrible I stopped in my tracks. "I have mushrooms growing all over the place," she related. "They're everywhere!" "Really?" I replied, "That's great!" "GREAT? Seriously? I hate them! I've been pulling them all and throwing them over the fence!"
Oh, the horror! The horror! I've heard this before, particularly with meticulous gardeners. Mushrooms pop up in the middle of a green lawn and they're immediately hunted down and destroyed. Does that describe you, oh enlightened reader of Mother Earth News? I hope not!
The Underground Network of Mycelium
The average gardener sees mushrooms as if they were individual plants. He spots them in the yard and assumes they're simply a single organism, or a group of organisms in a ring or a cluster. Rarely does he stop and wonder how deep their mycelium run. The truth of the matter is that mushrooms are simply the fruiting bodies of a creature that may be much larger than it appears at first, second or third glance. Their deep underground network may have been around long before you arrived on the scene.
Have you ever turned over a log or some mulch and seen wispy white fibers running through the wood? That's the main body of the mushrooms, i.e. NOT the part getting thrown over the fence. In your garden, or better yet, your food forest, mushrooms and other fungi are tireless creators of soil and recyclers of hard-to-compost organic matter such as roots, logs and tough vegetable material. They digest rocks and release nutrition that plants can only dream of accessing.
Some mushrooms even have beneficial relationships with your plants. A tree can photosynthesize and create sugars mushrooms in a way mushrooms can't. They trade these sugars to mycorrhizal species of fungi and in turn are rewarded with minerals often carried to their roots from far beyond the tree's reach.
Innovators like Paul Stamets, author of Mycelium Running and other books, are now spreading the word. Entrepreneurial companies are even selling living fungal cultures you can add to the soil when you plant trees, giving them a leg up (or a "root" up) on the competition. Many of these products have been shown to help; however, you don't need to resort to buying fungi to get them running happily through your soil and enriching your homestead.
Front Yard Food Forest
For the last few years I've been dropping tree company mulch, logs, leaves and other scrounged organic matter around my front yard food forest garden. When I go on walks I seek out mushrooms in fruit and bring them home, burying them and spreading their spores here and there.
(My wife realized how badly I had fungi fever last week on the drive home from church. In an empty field by the highway, I saw a big fairy ring of large mushrooms and pulled a U-turn to pick a few. Turns out they were the lovely [and unfortunately inedible] Chlorophyllum molybdites. To my wife's slight irritation [she was faking... I think], I pressed three good specimens into her hands and said "Don't let them get damaged! I need to spore print these!")
We've had a good wet summer this year and as fall approaches the sheer number of mushrooms in our front yard has been marvelous. We're talking at least 30+ species that I've seen thus far, all on a half-acre. I took a bunch of photos and posted them on my blog - you can see the beauty here.
Since adding wood chips and gaining the resultant fungi I've seen a lot of improvement in plant growth. Plus I get to look at beautiful mushrooms. One of these days I'll start deliberately cultivating edible varieties... but that's a topic for another day.
Now if I can just convince my lawn-loving neighbors to chuck their mushrooms over my fence, I'll be all set.
David Goodman is an avid naturalist, gardener, writer and teacher as well as being the creator of www.FloridaSurvivalGardening.com, a daily gardening resource for people serious about growing food in tough times while still taking time to enjoy creation in all its abundance.