Organic Gardening

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Start a Farmers Market 

When I moved to my little town over 11 years ago, there was hardly a farmers market to speak of. The market that did exist took place in a dusty, sun-baked parking lot at the edge of town. Market hours were from 9am to 1pm on a Tuesday—not prime shopping hours for most 9-to-5 working types. Needless to say, consumer participation was low.

Vendors at the market were in short supply. There were five tables: three vegetable growers and two crafters. The growers and crafters that participated were not local (other than one), and the produce they furnished was likely (based off of its appearance) something that didn't sell at the nearby Saturday market and so was trucked back to the farm, reconstituted in water and held until the following Tuesday in marginal refrigeration. Not exactly the awe-inspiring display one wants to see when taking the time to shop local.

Challenges Joining a Farmers Market

In those days, the market that existed was an off-shoot of a larger organization located nearly 25 miles to the East of us. There was an absentee market manager, no advertising, awful signage and the impression that our town’s produce needs really weren't all that important to anyone in charge. It was dismal.

Back then, my husband and I were newbie farmers…well, more like over-producing backyard growers who were tight on cash. On a whim, we contacted the market board to see if it was worth our time to participate in our “local” market. The short answer, after reading through the fine print and seeing the vendor fees, was a resounding “no.” There was no incentive for local small producers to participate in the market process. Discouraged, we searched for a better outlet for our abundance.

Fast forward one year in time: Our small backyard enterprise had since grown into a 1.5-acre mini-farming operation and we were desperate to establish some steady markets for our crops. I attended a farm-to-table event in a nearby town and was introduced to several other young growers, plus a slew of agency staff. As we were departing the venue, one of my new acquaintances hinted at the idea of creating a new farmers market and was actively recruiting participants. This is how, nearly 8 years ago, I was pulled into the market creation process.

6 Steps to Start a Farmers Market

Here are a few of the things that I have learned

1. Farmers markets can be contentious; prepare for a fight (even if you aren't looking for one). This was a huge eye-opener to me. Who wouldn't want a successful market in their town? Apparently (and obviously) anyone involved with the other market that already existed. To be fair, in our effort to keep from reinventing the wheel, we approached the board of the original market and asked if they would allow us to become our own, self-governing entity. They very vocally and rudely declined. As part of our community outreach, we held a public meeting to discuss the possibility of creating an additional market in town, allowing the original market to continue to exist but adding a second market on a different day that would be run by our new entity.

During and leading up to the public meeting, members of the original market board were openly slanderous and vocal about their dissent and went to lengths to discredit our planning efforts (including setting up several secret meetings with city officials, placing anti-market ads in the local papers and even placing anti-market radio spots).

Fortunately for us, the positive support we received from the remainder of the community was enough to convince the City to issue a second permit allowing us to create a farmers market independent of the first market without forcing the shutdown of the original market in the process. From our perspective, this was the closest thing to a win; let the customers decide where their allegiances would lie.

2. Be prepared for internal growing pains and choose a strong group leader. As with any new entity, there were massive differences in opinion about the best way to organize ourselves. The most well-intentioned neighbors and volunteers were, at times, reduced to yelling matches over our boardroom table. Items as simple as choosing a name or the day of the week and timing for the market became heated debates. In those early stages, we lost many participants because of the strain of these decisions. It was only with the designation of a strong group leader that we were able to make it through these formative decisions into the real meat of setting up a market: bi-laws, market rules and a budget.

3. Research other markets for guidance on rule making and budgeting. All markets are not created equally. When starting a new market from the ground up, you will be faced with decisions that set the tone for your market’s “feel,” which will ultimately be its identity.

Will you allow re-sale? What will your crafter-to-vendor ratio be? How much will you charge for stall fees? What will the ratio be of vegetables to fruits? Will you allow GMO crops? How will you handle nonprofit booths? Will you host live music?

We were fortunate to have a strong and engaged group of rule-makers who were willing to do the research and legwork the first time around that led to the construction of a strong framework of bi-laws, market rules and operating budget. Over the years, there have been some adjustments to our original bi-laws (For example, our inaugural board was limited to seven members but has since been increased to 11.). But for the most part, the original framework remains unchanged.

The strength of this ground floor rule-making has allowed for the smooth transition between the original board members and all new board participants. Our documentation has always been strong and transparent, making it easy for a new member to come up to speed on the reasoning behind each of the rules or regulations.

4. Foster a good relationship with city officials and community members. Our little town has many regulations regarding signage and setbacks that added some complication to our application process. Fortunately, our board members have always been on good terms with city officials and an open channel of dialog has kept us relatively free from controversy. This isn't exactly an easy task. Shop owners in town have felt threatened by the market from the very beginning and constantly nag the city to limit the reach of the market. This includes limiting prepared food, wine sampling, crafting etc…anything that may be viewed as “competition” to the other downtown businesses.

Because of our strong relationship with the city and our ability to concede on much smaller issues (such as signage regulation) we have been able to continue the growth of the market with little regulatory impediment. Our strong commitment to our community and their strong commitment to us has allowed us leverage when negotiating larger political potholes, such as lobbying for free parking on market nights. In a town where revenue is intimately tied to parking fees, this concession by the city would not have been possible without our strong community base of supporters.

5. Hire a good Market Manager. The Market Manager is the mouthpiece of the market board. He or she is the face of the market that the community and your vendors are most intimately involved with. It is therefore important to hire the right person for the job.

The manager should be personable, responsible, strict (yes, strict) and tireless. Fortunately for us, we found the right candidate our very first season. Our manager arrives early and leaves late. He is the voice of our radio spots, organizes the pre-season vendor meeting, sets up signage and amplification, marks out booth locations, keeps our vendor ratios favorable, manages disputes and directs traffic during vendor un-loading and loading. Essentially, he rallies the troops and keeps us in line without alienating a soul. To show our appreciation as a board, we have built into our budget an annual salary review and bonus process. This has kept the working relationship between the board and the manager strong.

6. Hire a bookkeeper. Originally, bookkeeping duties were the job of our board Treasurer. What became apparently obvious as members of the board reached the end of their term was that the hardest transition to keep seamless was the finances. This was due, in part, to the heavy workload involved with both maintaining the books and then explaining the system to a newcomer. We made the unanimous decision to work into our budget a little extra money allocated for external bookkeeping services. This has taken pressure off of our volunteer board and keeps our bookkeeping from becoming sloppy.

Looking Forward 

We are now entering our 9th market season. Much has changed over the years and I feel fortunate to be involved in a market that does not seem to be going away any time soon (That original Tuesday market didn't last more than another season after the formation of our new Thursday evening market).

In fact, participation continues to grow, with a wait list of potential vendors and ever-increasing consumer participation. The strength of our market regularly attracts customers from as far as 100 miles away and our vendors receive frequent praise about the quality of the market experience. Most certainly, there will be future challenges that are yet to be anticipated. But for the most part, the decisions we made early on in our formation have proven to be sound ones. I can only hope that some of you who will be undergoing a similar process can find guidance from the words that have been written here today.

Photo by Leah Hemberry Ricketts

If you would like to read more from Eron including essays, past garden-related articles and more, please visit her personal blog, Farmertopia. If you would like to be connected with her farm, please follow the Tierra Garden Organics Facebook page or visit the Tierra Learning Center website. For more information on farming activism in North Central Washington, check out the FARMY Facebook page.


I have evidently gone crazy for berries. Every spring I have been adding more edibles to my landscape and garden, and the past couple of years the focus has been berries – blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, kiwi berries, goji berries, and honeyberries. If I have to pay a water bill to maintain my landscape, it may as well be for edibles so I can reduce my grocery bill – plus the food is organic and as fresh as it gets.



I started with blueberries planted in containers several years ago. The reason for containers was that I live in the High Desert region of Southern California and the soil is on the alkaline side of the pH scale. Blueberries really like acidic soil – as low as 4.5. With the containers, it is much easier to manage the soil by starting with a quality organic potting mix and bypassing the native soil all together. I recently moved all of the blueberries into some of my raised beds, which are simply bigger containers, in an effort to reduce some of my water usage during the historic drought that is affecting California. I had veggies planted in the raised beds previously. I reduced the quantity of veggies in order to make space for the berries and other perennials, thus eliminating the containers from needing to be watered.

The original blueberry plants were picked up at Home Depot a few years ago, I do not remember the variety, but they have grown and produced nicely. Last year I bought a couple more plants from OSH (Pink Lemonade and Misty). I also ordered three more (Elizabeth) online. I have to be careful when choosing blueberries to make sure they will grow in the desert’s climate – we are in USDA zone 8b – with the biggest concern being the summer heat, which I have seen as high as 117 F.

The blueberries are relatively easy care – I water them about every three days, fertilize them in early spring and summer, and lightly prune them in late winter or early spring. The fertilizer I usually use is Blueberries Alive, which provides the appropriate nutrients for blueberries and helps maintain the necessary acidity in the soil.



Like many folks, strawberries are one of my favorite summertime fruits. Last year I decided it was time to grow my own rather than spending plenty of dollars on fresh organic berries at the store or farmer’s market. I set up two pyramid-style beds, filled with organic potting mix, to be the new home for my strawberries. I chose two varieties – an ever-bearing and a June-bearing. With the ever-bearing, I can have fresh strawberries available from mid spring until fall, which is great for adding them to breakfast or a fruit salad. The June-bearing provide an abundance of sweet berries in a short amount of time, although this year that time occurred from late April through May. There might be a few more come June, but our weird weather caused them to produce early. No matter, the abundance at one time allows the ability to make a nice batch of jam, and to put plenty in the freezer for use in smoothies, etc. throughout the winter.

Strawberries, too, are easy to grow. They are watered every other day, and fertilized with an organic all-purpose fertilizer every couple of months – spring through summer. I have to trim off some of the runners periodically to keep them within the bounds of the bed. Also, they seem to be prone to a little damage from “Rolly Pollies”, which I manage with a treatment of Sluggo Plus every three or four weeks. During the winter, I trim them back to the ground and await new growth in early spring.



Blackberries bring back childhood memories of growing up in Oregon. I used to pick the tasty berries for my sister and I to make cobblers and pies – if they made it to the house without being completely devoured. The only thing I did not enjoy about the experience was the abundance of prickly thorns. When I decided to plant blackberries, I was sure pleased to discover that they came in thornless varieties. I purchased two Triple Crown thornless blackberries at Lowes last year, and planted them in large whiskey barrel containers. This year, I moved them from the containers into raised beds like I did with the blueberries. I evidently missed some of the roots, because there are still blackberry plants sprouting up among the roses that I transplanted to those containers. They are going nuts in the raised beds, too!

They take minimal care with some pruning in the winter, occasional fertilizing, and some water every two or three days. By the number of blooms and baby berries, it looks like I’ll be enjoying bunches of them this summer – I can’t wait for some cobbler!



So since I was on a berry kick, I ordered some raspberries (a yellow variety called Anne) online. They, to, were planted in containers and then moved to the raised beds. These grew nicely in the containers, but after I transplanted them they seriously took off and sprouted up new canes throughout the bed. I am thinking it’s a good thing they will be limited to the confines of the raised bed.

These take very little care – water every two to three days, a little fertilizer, and clipping their canes back in the winter.

There are ample blooms and berries, which I have been harvesting for a couple of weeks, and should continue throughout the summer. Not many of the berries have made it in the house as they are consumed before I leave the garden. A note on these berries is that they ripen really fast and do not keep very long. I recommend that if you grow these, and they make into the house, to include them in a meal or snack quickly or they will become soft and mushy within just a day.

Kiwi Berries

Kiwi Berries

I was first introduced to Kiwi Berries a few years ago when a package of them was included in my produce box from a co-op that I was a member of. The berries were great – just like baby kiwis without the “fur”. I decided to investigate the possibilities of growing them and discovered that they were cold hardy (to -40 F), unlike the regular kiwis that can’t take the cold (sometimes into the teens, and I’ve seen it down to 6 F) of the High Desert winters. They can take the summer heat if given some shade in the heat of the day.

I purchased six of them – four females and two males – from I planted them in the desert soil along with some organic amendments on the side of one of my chicken coops with the idea of the vines climbing up the side to provide some color to the otherwise drab structure. They did not do well – I lost three of them and the others struggled. I dug them up from the desert soil and moved them to containers with organic potting mix, and placed them in the protected area near some of my raised beds. The area provides afternoon shade and some mesh-type fencing material for the vines to climb. This year they finally flowered, but failed to set fruit. I noticed a lack of pollinators, but it has been excessively windy this year so I am hoping that was the issue. I hope to see them with berries next year. I have been keeping the soil moist, not soggy, and have fertilized them each spring and summer.

Goji Berries and Honeyberries

Just this spring I ordered Goji Berries (Crimson Star) and Honeyberries (Berry Blue and Honey Sweet) via to expand the varieties of berries in my yard. I planted them in a raised bed and have fertilized them once. So far they have leafed out and have grown a couple of inches. I expect it will be another year or two before they begin to produce.

Goji Berries are considered a superfruit and grow in USDA zones 5 and higher. They prefer well-drained soil and full sun.

Honeyberries are a type of honeysuckle and get better production if you plant two different varieties. They are also considered a superfruit and are supposed to taste similar to blueberries. They prefer zones 2-7 and are hardy to -40 F. I am taking a bit of a risk with these since my zone is 8b, but they get some shade in the location they are in.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


We have been growing muskmelons (sometimes called cantaloupes) for many years, and a few years ago added the crisp white-fleshed Asian melons to our repertoire. I like nothing better than eating fruit fresh from the field, still warm from the sun. My article about growing melons is coming up in the June/July issue of Growing for Market magazine. Here I will complement that article and the chapter in my book Sustainable Market Farming by writing about personal size melons, a new category on the market, sometimes called “individual serving” melons. They weigh about 2-2.5 pounds each, compared to standard cantaloupes at 3-6 pounds each. To serve, just cut in half and scoop out the seeds. Add ice cream if you like.


Not all personal size melons are new varieties, or hybrids. Some are old varieties with a new marketing spin. We have grown some heirlooms, but the green tone to the flesh and skin, combined with the small size led people to think them not ripe when they were. Know when to harvest your melons!

“Full-slip” and “Half-slip” Melons Explained

“Full-slip” melons separate cleanly from the stem with only a little nudge. Look carefully at the point where the stem joins the melon. As the melon ripens a circular crack starts to open around the stem. This small disk of melon stays with the stem when the melon slips off the vine.

“Half-slip” is when half of the stem disk sticks and breaks rather than slipping free when you harvest.

“Non-slipping:” melons are overripe by the time the stem can be tugged from the fruit. These must be cut from the vine when the color suggests ripeness.

Types of Melon

Jeff McCormack of Saving Our Seeds distinguishes eight types of Cucumis melo melon. See this Saving Our Seeds PDF. Cucumis melo reticulatus, a group that includes muskmelons (which we commonly call cantaloupes) and Galia types, which are ripe at full slip; Cucumis melo cantalupensis, the true cantaloupes (which mostly slip) including Charentais (which do not slip); Cucumis melo inodorus non-slipping (‘storage’) melons such as casabas, crenshaws, honeydews, and canary melons; Cucumis melo dudaim grown for aroma, not flavor (such as Plum Granny); and four groups less common in the US: C. m. flexuosus (non-slipping snake melons, including Armenian cucumbers), C. m. conomon (non-slipping Asian melons and Oriental pickling melons), C. m. chito (mango melon and others named after other fruits) and C. m. momordica (snap melons).


Hybrid Personal Size Melons

We are trying Tasty Bites melon from Johnny’s Seeds. It is a cross between a charentais melon and an ananas type. It takes 80 days from transplanting to maturity, so it is far from being an early melon. Most melons take 70-76 days. Tasty Bites is a heavily netted melon with an attractive even appearance and no sutures (ribs). 2-2.5 lbs. It comes with the promise of an above-average shelf life. We don’t generally think we need a long shelf life for fruit, as they are usually snapped up and eaten pretty quickly! Additionally, the fruits ripen over a fairly long harvest period.

A source for many unusual melons is Seedman. Here are some other hybrid small cantaloupe varieties with suppliers:

Alvaro Charentais 77d, (much earlier than other Charentais), a sturdy grey-green, uniform, 2.3 lb deeply sutured, 5x6 inches un-netted fruits, with thick orange flesh and rich full-bodied flavor –remember to harvest at half-slip Fedco Seeds (F)

Arava, an 80d 1.6 lb smooth, uniform, lightly netted, Galia-type green-fleshed cantaloupe (F)

Golden Sweet hybrid, a very prolific 12 oz (350 gm) oblong melon with crisp, sweet white flesh and smooth golden skin which turns yellow before maturity - wait for a few more weeks to ripeness. (SC)

Golden Liner hybrid Korean melon with 11-16 oz (300-450 gm) golden oblong fruit with silver lines running end-to-end and very crisp sweet white flesh. (SC)

Hakucho Charantais hybrid melon, a sweet round 1 lb melon with yellow-gray skin, no netting, salmon-orange flesh (SC)

Lilliput, a 1-2 lb round F1 hybrid cantaloupe with deep orange flesh, small central cavity, high sweetness and fragrance. Slips when ripe. The lightly netted skin changes from light green to yellow-tan when ripe. Sakata (SK), (SC)

Savor F1 Hybrid, a very sweet, aromatic 2 pound melon of the Charentais type: faintly ribbed, with smooth gray-green skin, dark green sutures, deep orange flesh (SC)

Sugar Cube, 2 lb, 81d 4-inch greenish-skinned coarsely netted hybrid melon. Disease-resistant. Slips when ripe, has deep orange flesh. Burpee (B), (SC),

White Honey Honeydew an 80d, 2lb melon with almost translucent flesh. Ripe when the skin turns from white to deep ivory and emits a strong fragrance. It keeps well for five days after harvest. (F)

Open-pollinated personal size melons

Baker Creek may hold the record for the most OP melon varieties (approximately 100, not including watermelons, bitter melons, wax melons or any of the less common types). I have found Baker Creek’s website hard to navigate. Don’t let this happen to you! Go to the Rare Seeds website and it’s easy. Here’s an alphabetical list with suppliers:

Charentais, 85d. A French 2-3 lb. melon with light grey-green skin, and sweet, fragrant bright orange flesh. (Baker Creek)

Early Hanover, 75d. Lusicous, 2-3 lb, green fleshed melon. (BC)

Early Silver Line. Oval, yellow, 1-2 lb. Asian melon. (BC)

Eden’s Gem/Eden Gem/Rocky Ford, a 2-lb, 90d heirloom with spicy green flesh and greenish heavily netted skin. Vigorous vines produce 3–4 round heavily netted aromatic melons per plant. Fruits slip when ripe. (BC, F, SC and Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, SESE)

Emerald Gem 80d, 3 lb ribbed heirloom, with pale orange juicy flesh, and striped dark green skin. A heavy producer. (SC)

Golden Jenny (orange-fleshed Jenny Lind type), Short vines producing succulent 2 lb. melons. Early and productive. (BC, SESE)

Golden Sweet, 75d, 1-2lbs, oval yellow Asian melon. (BC)

Green Machine/Ice Cream 80d. 2lb, Vigorous, compact vines produce green-fleshed melons, which slip when ripe. (BC, SESE)

Jenny Lind, 80d, 1-2lb flattened fruits with green sutured and heavily netted skins and juicy light green flesh. Sparse vines are prolific bearers. The melons blush when ripe. (F, SC)

Kajari, 75d 2-3lbs Unusual striped melons from India, with dark green stripes that turn deep orange when ripe. Medium green to light yellow honeydew flavored flesh. Slips when fully ripe. Each plant will produce 6-8 melons. Unripe melons can be picked after the first frost and will continue to ripen in storage. They have a long shelf life especially if refrigerated. (BC, SC)

Kazakh 1-2lb, sweet green-flesh and green skin which turns golden when ripe. Early, resistant to drought, and a good climber. (BC)

Minnesota Midget, Small early, 4-inch melons with sweet flavorful yellow flesh and green and yellow skins. Large crops on compact 3' vines. (BC, SC)

Petit Gris de Rennes cantaloupe. 80-85d, 1.5-3lb sweet orange-fleshed fruits with mustard/olive speckled skins without netting. Not a production melon - neither early, high-yielding nor easy to tell when ripe. Cut from the vine when the blossom-end is soft, then wait a while. (F, SC)

Rich Sweetness 132, a tiny red and gold striped 4 ounce white fleshed melon with good fragrance. (BC)

Sleeping Beauty, 1½ lb. round, ribbed netted fruits with succulent orange flesh and yellow tan-colored skins, grow on compact vines. (BC, SESE)

Swan Lake Honeydew 2-3 lb smooth yellow, partially netted melons with flesh that may be white or swirled with orange. Stem turns brown and separates easily from the melon when ripe. (BC, SC)

Tigger 90d, 1lb white-fleshed melons, with skins that are vibrant yellow with red zigzag stripes. They are very fragrant, although mild tasting. The vigorous plants yield heavily, even in dry conditions.  (BC)

Photos by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange


Pam Dawling manages the vegetable gardens at Twin Oaks Community in central Virginia. She often presents workshops at MEN Fairs. Pam also writes for Growing for Market magazine. Her book, Sustainable Market Farming: Intensive Vegetable Production on a Few Acres, is available at Sustainable Market Farming, Pam's blog is on her website and also on Facebook.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


Dried Calendula Petals 

I’ve long grown flowers, especially marigolds and sunflowers, as part of my organic vegetable garden. The pollination and potential companion-planting benefits have always served as my excuse to add some plants that are “just pretty” to my otherwise utilitarian, food-producing plot. This year, I took my marigold planting up a notch and decided to grow Calendula officinalis, known commonly as calendula, instead of the more common marigolds of the Tagetes genus.

I chose to do so because I wanted to take advantage of the skin-healing properties associated with calendula in the officinalis species. Many companies have taken advantage of these properties and created fine body care products with calendula infusions or calendula essential oil. So, why not grow this multipurpose flower to make my own products?

I started my calendula indoors about six weeks before my region’s predicted last frost, and I have since transplanted them along the edges of my beds of potatoes, tomatoes and peppers. We have several buds and two open flowers. As the flowers open, I will collect the petals to infuse oils, most likely olive oil. After at least a few weeks of steeping, the oils can be blended into any body care product recipe that calls for a liquid oil component. I plan to make an herbal salve, as shown in this how-to video.

Plus, calendula petals are edible and make a beautiful topping for spring and summer salads. On top of that, the dried blossoms can be used to provide color for homemade cheeses and butters and are also employed as an inexpensive saffron substitute. They may be mixed with other herbs to give added flavor to teas, as well. You could even mix them in a corn muffin recipe. With all of these options, what’s not to love? So much for “just pretty”!

Jennifer Kongs is the Managing Editor for MOTHER EARTH NEWS magazine. When she's not at her desk, she's likely whipping up something tasty in her kitchen, pulling weeds and planting in her garden, or working up a sweat on the local running trails. Connect directly with Jennifer by leaving a comment below.


Compost Everything

Does the word “composting” fill you with guilt?

Do you remember back when you were going to build the perfect bin?

Or that great thing you saw on composting with worms that you’ve always wanted to do but never did?

Or maybe you have an expensive cranked compost tumbler sitting in your backyard with nothing in it but a few dry coffee grounds and a blackened banana peel?

Composting is one of those things we know we should do, like buckling our safety belts, staying in school and recycling… yet more often than not, we still throw away our food scraps and yard waste rather than returning them to the ground.

It’s time to stop feeling guilty and start making changes.

No matter who you are or where you live, you can compost. Even composting meat is easy. The great thing is that it doesn’t really require bins, tumblers, kitchen canisters or any other infrastructure.

All you need to do is let things rot!

This last winter I wrote a little book on composting that I hope will change a lot of minds on the topic while taking away guilt from those who have suffered under their landfill-stuffing sins for too long. The book is titled Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting. As I write this article, it’s the #1 bestseller in Amazon’s gardening section. One reason I believe my book is so popular is because it relieves folks from the pressure of composting.

What kind of pressure?

How about the need to turn piles? Or the need to get your carbon/nitrogen ratios perfect? Or the need to build a nice bin?

I wrote my book so folks wouldn’t worry so much about making perfect compost and instead just start returning everything organic to the ground safely in order to feed their plants and reduce the amount of potential soil food that is going into landfills rather than back into the soil.

So – how can you start doing that right now, without a bin? Here are a couple simple ideas.

Composting with Ease

If you have a yard, just start saving your kitchen scraps in a lidded container. I use a five-gallon bucket because we go through a lot of garden produce on our homestead. You can compost meat, junk mail (just not glossy pieces or the plastic window in bills), bones, scrap paper, moldy bread and whatever else you like until you’ve got a good amount in there. Heck – maybe this is the time to clean our your fridge!

Then, just go outside and dig a hole a couple of feet deep, then empty the bucket in your pit and cover the mess with soil. Voila! You’ve returned all that material to the ground! As long as it’s deep enough and covered up well, animals will leave it alone… but the roots of your trees and plants will find that delicious organic matter with no problem.

In fact, I’ve used this method to grow Seminole pumpkins and watermelons in the hot, dry sand of my front yard. I dug a good-sized pit, dumped in everything from beef stew to coffee grounds, ashes and chunks of rotten wood, then filled in the pit with some soil and planted seeds on top. The vines that emerged needed no additional fertilization and really enjoyed eating all the stuff we’re often told we “can’t” compost.

In its simplest form, composting is just a natural process of decay. When you throw out your food scraps and paper scraps, you’re exporting potential soil fertility from your property. When you bury them in your yard, you’re increasing the richness of your land.


Of course, if you want perfect compost for your garden you can set up a bin and make nice, brown crumbly humus from your scraps; however, you’ll likely do just as well burying kitchen scraps beneath your beds and planting on top of them! I know the earthworms love the fresh material… and your plants don’t mind either.

If you live in an apartment or a dorm, why not ask around and see if there are any gardeners in your circle of friends that might appreciate your scraps? If not, you can always just pick a tree in the woods and dump them there. Throw a few leaves over the scraps and no one will even know you were there… but the tree will appreciate it!

It’s time to quit feeling guilty and start composting!

David Goodman (AKA David The Good) is an author and gardening teacher as well as the creator of the popular daily gardening site Florida Survival Gardening. His brand new book Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting is laugh-out-loud funny and teaches you how to compost meat, bones, logs, junk mail and more, as well as simple methods for creating homemade fish emulsion and raising worms. It is on sale at Amazon for just $2.99 right now.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


Planting A Future: Profiles from Oregon’s New Farm Movement spotlights 18 Oregon farms and farm supporters who are committed to a return to ecologically sound agricultural practices. This group reflects the diversity of people, both young and old, who are reshaping our state’s food system and reclaiming our right to eat well. In their stories you will hear how they came to be where they are, learn something about the challenges they face, and share their happiness at the successes they’ve enjoyed thus far. The following profile has been excerpted from Planting A Future.

Dylana Kapuler and Mario DiBenedetto

Most people who closely follow the organic farm movement in this country have heard of Dr. Alan ‘Mushroom’ Kapuler, the plant-breeding pioneer who was one of the original founders of Seeds of Change and who helped put environmentally adaptive, public domain plant breeding on the map.
What fewer people may know is that for that past seven years Alan Kapuler has been working in his Corvallis, Oregon breeding garden with two dedicated proteges… his daughter, Dylana Kapuler, and her partner, Mario DiBenedetto.

Dylana and Mario have spent these years formally studying with, being inspired by, and working with a master plant breeder who, in turn, has trained, nurtured, and guided them through the equivalent of a degree in plant breeding and garden ecology.

Today, these two proteges are beginning to realize what they have acquired – the ability to help sustain Dr. Kapuler’s work and, in turn, build a seed company of their own. Rather than take over the senior Kapuler’s Peace Seeds, Dylana and Mario launched their business, Peace Seedlings, with an obvious nod to their mentor.

“Some people were surprised when we didn’t just take over Peace Seeds,” explains Mario, “because people knew Mushroom was at a place where he was thinking about retiring. But he didn’t want to stop doing everything, he just didn’t want to continue selecting all these varieties he had developed. So we started taking that on. As we did that, we also got more involved with our own breeding projects, and naturally since we were working with Mushroom, our work was focused on public domain plant breeding.”

“Which needs to happen for the sake of adaptation,” adds Dylana. “The climate is changing, so seeds need to be selected based on where they’re located and how they adapt to those changes, as well as a number of other considerations like nutritional makeup. My dad’s past work needs to be continued and built on. By doing that, we’re freeing him up to focus on his latest inspirations, which include things like native food plants that are overlooked or neglected. He’s inspired by species that are hard to get your hands on… that you have to wild collect and learn how to grow so they’re not at the mercy of who knows what bulldozer.”

circular rows of seed plants

Mario continues, “We have two different seed companies, but obviously there’s still a lot of collaboration, especially on varieties he developed. As we grow and develop plants, we talk with him about what he was selecting for, what his process was. If we weren’t doing this, then things like double red sweet corn would no longer be available. And that would be kind of sad.”

As I talk with Mario and Dylana, the influence of Alan is ever present. In his quiet, humble manner, Mario speaks with something approaching reverence about what Dylana’s father has taught him, how he has inspired him to embrace the principles of breeding plants in a way that benefits all people and selecting for traits beyond the lure of profit.

“We visited our friend at Oregon State not long ago, and they were doing berry trials,” Mario says. “They have these amazing, huge raspberries, blueberries, honey berries… all sorts of berries. But the only things the researchers go by is how sweet, big, and productive they are. That’s cool. That makes sense. But Mushroom’s thing is that if everyone is stuck on sugar, what are we doing to ourselves? We might want to look at other aspects, like amino acids or anthocyanins. Things that might make the berries more beneficial. We should keep trying to learn what’s possible.

“And honestly it’s pretty hard not to be inspired to learn when you’re around Mushroom,” Mario explains. “One of the most interesting things about him is how incredibly motivated he is to learn at all times. So he’s been a huge help for us, just to keep us inspired, and also to give us direction and things to learn. He continually challenges us. Plus, he advocates that if you want to talk about something then you’d better learn as much about it as you can, otherwise you’re not really doing other people justice… or yourself for that matter.”

I ask if it has always been this way for Dylana, growing up in her father’s gardens and under his watchful eye.

Peace Seedlings greenhouse

“As a young kid I was certainly encouraged to pay attention to seeds and plants,” says Dylana. “He always encouraged all of us – me and my sisters – to be interested in plants. For me, it probably really took hold when I didn’t go to kindergarten because I wanted to stay home and watch my dad clean seeds and hang out, and that was fine with him. Of course, after that I did go to public school, which pulled me into that whole public school world for a period of time, but I still spent time in the garden. At one time I thought I wanted to be an organic farmer and work for Seeds of Change… of course that was before Seeds of Change was bought by a large corporation.

“And then there was a time as a teenager when I kind of forgot all this and spent some time asking teenager questions, like ‘what am I going to do with my life’ but by the time I was halfway through high school I was backyard gardening a lot on my own, and I knew I wasn’t going to college. Because I just wanted to learn hands-on. I’m really a hands-on learner.”

While Dylana was growing up in her Corvallis gardens, Mario got his start a little farther north in Washington. He grew up on the Olympic peninsula. Like Dylana, he doesn’t have much interest in higher education, although he did have an Associates degree through a local community college by the time he was eighteen. But a short time later he relocated to Eugene, Oregon and began working on the Walama Restoration Project, a non-profit dedicated to environmental stewardship and biological diversity through education and habitat restoration. It was then he and Dylana met through mutual friends and first got together. And not long thereafter, he moved to Corvallis to live with Dylana and her parents.

Dylana puts it simply… “and that’s what led to us being out here in the garden.”

Mario adds, “And we began gardening and learning. That’s what Mushroom has always advocated for, just learning about plants, and he feels one of the best ways to really learn is to get hands-on experience with as many different plants and seeds as you can. That grew as kind of an organic process. You’re saving seeds, you’re learning more each year, and then you reach a point of realizing that you have quite a bit of experience, a growing body of knowledge, and a whole lot of seed.”

“When we started, my dad said it would take us five years before we really knew anything,” says Dylana. “At the time I was like, five years? But he was right. You have to go through that many cycles to really get an understanding of what’s happening and why. So I guess our first five years was kind of like going to college.”

To be continued…

Order your copy of Planting A Future: Profiles from Oregon's New Farm Movement.

(Top) Photo by Lisa D. Holmes. Dylana Kapuler and Mario DiBenedetto, owners of Peace Seedlings.

(Middle) Photo by Lisa D. Holmes. Circular rows add interest to Peace Seedlings’ test gardens.

(Bottom) Photo by Lisa D. Holmes. Peace Seedlings’ greenhouse is home to an indoor forest of citrus trees and other tropical plants.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.


seed library poster 

The first International Seed Library Forum was held in Tucson, Arizona on May 3-6 and I was fortunate to be asked to participate on two panels on the program. Seed libraries are community programs that give members a means to share seeds they’ve grown with one another. They can get free seeds from the seed library to start or share the ones they’ve already been growing and saving. The number of seed libraries has increased at an exponential rate, especially in public libraries. Until now they have been loosely organized through the Seed Library Network and the Sister Seed Library List, but the time has come for more structure.

You may have heard that in the past year several state departments of agriculture have decided that, since seed libraries distribute seeds, they fall under the regulation of the state seed laws. You can find what your seed law says at the American Seed Trade Association website.

Understanding the legal issues and coming together as a united front is what brought us all together at the Forum It was particularly exciting for me because I was able to meet so many people I had written about in Seed Libraries. Where the seed laws might be interpreted to regulate seed libraries, legislation exempting them from the seed laws needs to be passed. Betsy Goodman of the Common Soil Seed Library told of her experience with that in Nebraska. We were counseled by two lawyers, Neil Thapar of the Sustainable Economies Law Center and Neil Hamilton from Drake University Agricultural Law Center.

There was more going on besides legal matters and you will find additional details about the week at Homeplace Earth. Seed librarians and others interested in seeds had a chance to mingle and trade ideas and stories. It is always nice to talk with someone involved in the same thing you are, especially when that thing is something as new as a seed library. Although the idea is new to the current population, freely trading seeds is how the people of the world evolved.

Since writing Seed Libraries, I have visited the seed library at Victoria, British Columbia and communicated by email with seed libraries in Cleveland, Ohio and Durham, North Carolina. These seed libraries were all represented at the Forum. There was talk of future events such as this. In the meantime, I would like to see regional gatherings of seed librarians develop. It would give support to local seed libraries in a way that cannot be met through posting on the Internet.

If you are involved with a seed library, get to know where the other seed share initiatives are in your region and start reaching out to them. Getting together to exchange ideas is as easy as friends meeting up at a coffee shop, although you would probably be gathering at one of the seed libraries for show-and-tell. Or, for those of you skilled in organizing events, you could scale up to a whole conference and bring in speakers. The more local/regional networks you have, the stronger you will be. In fact, the libraries might exchange seeds among themselves if their seed savers begin bringing in more seeds than an individual library needs. The advancement of seed libraries and keeping seeds in the hands of the people is in your hands.

Cindy Conner is the author of Seed Libraries and Grow a Sustainable Diet and has produced DVDs about garden planning and managing cover crops with hand tools. Learn more about what she is up to at Homeplace Earth.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page. 

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