Best Staple Crops for Building Food Self-Sufficiency

Fill your pantry and boost your food security by growing these 10 space-efficient, calorie-rich staple crops that return high yields and store easily sans fossil fuels.

  • Staple Crops
    You’ll find that growing staple crops for your table adds a new, satisfying dimension to your gardening and your diet.
    Photo By Matthew T. Stallbaumer
  • Region Map
    In some regions tomatoes must cope with high heat and humidity and in other areas short growing seasons and cold temperatures offer the biggest challenges.
    Illustration By Matthew T. Stallbaumer
  • Potatoes Corn And Wheat
    Potatoes, grain corn and wheat store for months and can be easily grown in all regions of the United States.
    From left to right: Photo By Leon Wedinger; iStockphoto/TEOS55; Cindy Corner
  • Dried Beans And Winter Squash
    Think staple-crop versatility: Dry beans, peanuts and winter squash become soup, snacks and the star of a roasted veggie dish.
    From left to right: Photo By Fotolia/Zigzagmtart; iStockphoto/Modesigns58; Superstock
  • Cabbage Harvest
    Cabbage bounty: time for a crock of kraut!
    Photo By Jason Houston
  • Pantry Staple Crops
    Become less reliant on grocery store goods by lining your pantry shelves with homegrown staples.
    Photo By Matthew T. Stallbaumer

  • Staple Crops
  • Region Map
  • Potatoes Corn And Wheat
  • Dried Beans And Winter Squash
  • Cabbage Harvest
  • Pantry Staple Crops

To rely on your garden to feed your family, you need to grow staple crops — those foods that are the basis of the human diet. The best staple crops for building food self-sufficiency should be easy to harvest and store, return good yields, and be calorie-dense to provide the food energy from carbohydrates that you need each day. (See our Crop Yield and Calorie Density chart for a comparison of the staple crops discussed in this article.) Most of the 10 staples spotlighted here are also rich sources of other nutrients.

In her book The Resilient Gardener, homesteader and seed breeder Carol Deppe provides in-depth information about staple crops, and names potatoes, corn, beans, squash and eggs as the “five crops you need to survive and thrive.” I’ve expanded on that list, adding wheat, sweet potatoes, peanuts, cabbage, collards and kale. To show yield comparisons between these staple foods, I’ve used the average crop yields and servings-per-pound numbers from the charts in my previous MOTHER EARTH NEWS article, A Plan for Food Self-Sufficiency (October/November 2012). The calorie references are from John Jeavons’ book How to Grow More Vegetables, a worthwhile resource for anyone interested in food self-sufficiency.

Food storage and preservation qualities are key aspects to consider when selecting staple crops to increase your household’s food security. I love to grow food that doesn’t require fossil fuels to preserve and store it. The puzzle then becomes where and how to store it. Check your house carefully for good food-storage areas. I’ve found that a bottom kitchen cabinet is often 10 degrees Fahrenheit cooler during winter than the kitchen itself. I store potatoes, sweet potatoes and squash there. You might also have a closet in a spare room that stays cool. Find more creative food storage ideas at Food Storage: 20 Crops That Keep and How to Store Them.

Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes

Potatoes (along with grain corn) will give you the most calories for the least space. They are easy to grow — just bury a piece of potato about the size of an egg with a couple of “eyes” on it in the ground in a 4-inch-deep furrow. In climates with cool summers, plant early, midseason and late varieties two to three weeks before your last spring frost date. Potatoes will be ready to harvest in about 65 to 90 days, depending on the variety.

Sweet potatoes, with their high beta carotene content, are one of the healthiest foods you can eat. They love the heat, but you can grow them as far north as Canada.

I’ve found I can keep potatoes in a basket, covered with newspaper, in the house or a shed. In October, I transfer the potatoes to plastic boxes with holes drilled in them for ventilation, and then store the boxes in the crawl space under my house. I store sweet potatoes in baskets in a relatively cool area of the house, or in the plastic boxes under the house. Generally, potatoes do best stored at 40 to 55 degrees, and sweet potatoes do best at 55 to 60 degrees.

7/11/2020 7:39:43 PM

Anna, relax. The hen lays the egg (secretion, as you say) whether they are eaten or not. However, eggs are full of protein and there are hungry people....put the two together for food self sufficiency.

6/5/2020 10:16:16 AM

Eggs aren't even mentioned directly in this piece, Anna, but referenced from a different work. Relax... spend more time in the garden.

6/1/2020 2:22:39 PM

Eggs aren't a "crop". Nor are they essential in any way, shape, or form. They are the secretions from an animal that are not needed for human health. Stick to staple crops instead of the idiotic attempt to include livestock products in a category that is supposed to be about essentials.

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