Pesticide Drift Carries Chemicals to Homes and Schools

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<p style=”margin: 6pt 0in 0.0001pt;”>
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<p class=”pa9″>
As suburban sprawl extends further into the countryside, the numbers of people who
live, play and work near agricultural land is increasing. Due to pesticides drift­ing,
thousands of individuals are directly affected by adjacent or surrounding agricultural
fields where pesticide use totals nearly a million pounds a year. Pesticides used
on lawns, ornamentals and trees also drift on to neighboring property. Both scenarios
result in chemical trespass causing involuntary exposure. Gov­ernment and independent
studies show that drifting pesticides pose serious environmental and human health
risks miles away from the treated fields. With 77% of all pesticides in the U.S.
being used in agriculture, people, especially vulnerable high risk population groups
like children, the elderly and infirm, are directly exposed to pesticides drifting
on to homes, schools, health care facilities and other sensitive sites throughout
communities.
<p class=”pa10″>
According to the U.S. Envi­ronmental Protection Agency (EPA), &ldquo;Each year,
states receive about 2,500 complaints of drift from individuals.&rdquo; In 2002,
nearly half of the reported pes­ticide illness cases in California were individuals
who were exposed as a result of pesticide drift. Researchers believe that reported
occurrences are a frac­tion of actual incidents.
<p class=”pa10″>
While EPA has proposed changes to product labels that will instruct users to &ldquo;not
allow spray to drift from the applica­tion site…,&rdquo; the health effects associated
with drift exposure are not calculated or incorporated into agency risk assessments.
Could EPA allow pesticides to be used if it had to calculate the real world impacts
of drifting chemicals on people suffering cancer, neurological disease, asthma,
etc.? Are there require­ments EPA could impose on users to prohibit drift under
penalty of law? Are drift reduction or mitigation strategies effective? Should the
need to stop drift require the adoption of feasible non-toxic alternatives (e.g.
organic)?
<p class=”pa10″>
<strong>What is Pesticide Drift?</strong>
<p class=”pa9″>
Pesticide drift is an inevitable problem in pest management strategies that rely
on spray and dust pesticide formulations. There are essentially two types of drift:
particle drift (off-tar­get movement during application) and vapor drift (off-target
movement when a pesticide evaporates from a sprayed surface). EPA does not fully
regulate particle drift, and it altogether ignores vapor drift in its regulatory
definition of drift. Vapor drift is known to travel much further than particle drift.
<p class=”pa10″>
Although pesticides can drift when applied from a truck or hand held applicator,
of greatest concern is the aerial application of pesticides, where up to 40% of
the pesticide is lost to drift. It is estimated that less than 0.1% of an insecticide
reaches the target pests. Therefore, more than 99% of the applied pesticide is released
and left to impact the surrounding envi­ronment. Even the newer ultra low volume
technology (ULV) under ideal weather conditions results in only approximately 25%
of an herbicide reaching the target area.
<p class=”pa10″>
<strong>Pesticides drift for miles</strong>
<p class=”pa9″>
A 2001 study by Texas A&amp;M University researchers shows that pesticides can volatilize
into the gaseous state and be transported over long distances fairly rapidly through
wind and rain. A U.S. Geological Survey report reached similar conclusions, finding,
&ldquo;After they are applied, many pesticides volatilize into the lower atmosphere,
a process that can continue for days, weeks, or months after the application, depending
on the compound. In addition, pesticides can become airborne attached to wind-blown
dust.&rdquo; The report also documents that pesticides in rainfall collected in
Modesto, California exceeded state guidelines for the protec­tion of aquatic life
in most samples.
<p class=”pa9″>
In &ldquo;Every Breath You Take,&rdquo; Environmental Working Group reports on independent
scientific monitoring that finds danger­ously high concentrations of the neurotoxin
chlorpyrifos in the air that many residents breathe every day. Chlorpyrifos is an
organophosphate pesticide whose residential uses are being phased out, but continues
to be used in agriculture, for public health mosquito control and on golf courses.
The report finds that more than 22,000 children in three counties attend school
near sites of heavy use of toxic pesticides.
<p class=”pa9″>
Another report, Secondhand Pesticides, summarizes data collected throughout California
and finds that airborne pesticide levels routinely exceed accept­able health standards
miles from where they are used. More than 90% of pesticides used in California are
prone to drift, and 34% of the 188 million pounds of pesticides used in 2000 in
the state are considered highly toxic to humans, according to the report. Concentrations
of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon, another organophos­phate pesticide
whose residen­tial uses are being phased out, were found near spray areas in concentrations
that exceeded acceptable health levels by 184 and 39 times, respectively. The report
also reveals that for 45% of pesticides applied in Califor­nia, the concentrations
of pes­ticides in air peak long after the application is complete-between eight
and 24 hours after an application starts.
<p class=”pa10″>
Studies also show that pesticides drift indoors. For ex­ample, a 1991 EPA indoor
pesticide study on children&rsquo;s ex­posure shows that for newer and older homes
alike, &ldquo;residues of many pesticides are found in and around the home even
when there has been no known use of them on the prem­ises.&rdquo; In a 2003 study
published in Environmental Science and Technology on indoor toxins in homes, researchers
found varying and alarming levels of some of the most commonly used pesticides in
dust concentrations in sampled homes. Most concerning is that 63% of the homes tested
contain the commonly used herbicide 2,4-D, showing that pesticides can be tracked
indoors or drift in through poorly sealed or open windows and doors.
<p class=”pa10″>
<strong>Cause for concern </strong>
<p class=”pa9″>
Because of documented exposure patterns resulting from drift, advocates for children
and other sensitive population groups are particularly concerned. Adverse health
effects, such as nausea, dizziness, respiratory problems, headaches, rashes, and
mental disorientation, may appear even when a pesticide is applied according to
label directions. Pesticide exposure can adversely affect the neurological, respiratory,
immune, and endocrine systems, even at low levels. A recent study found organophosphate
pesticides cause genetic dam­age linked to neurological disorders such as attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson&rsquo;s disease. Several pesticides,
such as pyrethrins and pyrethroids, organophos­phates and carbamates, are also known
to cause or exacerbate asthma symptoms. Because most of the symptoms of pes­ticide
exposure, from respira­tory distress to difficulty in concentration, are common
in children and may also have other causes, pesticide-related illnesses often go
unrecognized and unreported.
<p class=”pa10″>
Studies show that children exposed to pesticides suffer el­evated rates of leukemia,
brain cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma. According to EPA&rsquo;s Guidelines for Carcinogen
Risk Assessment, children receive 50 percent of their lifetime cancer risks in the
first two years of life.
<p class=”pa10″>
A National Cancer Institute researcher who matched pesti­cide data and medical records
in ten California agricultural coun­ties recently reported that preg­nant women
living within nine miles of farms where pesticides are sprayed have an increased
risk of losing an unborn baby to birth defects. A 1996 study found that living within
2600 feet of an agricultural area increased the risk of developing brain cancer
by two-fold, with astrocytoma increased by 6.7-fold. <strong>State Buffer Zone Requirements
For Agricultural Pesticide Applications</strong>&nbsp;
<p class=”Pa10″ style=”text-align: justify;”>
<table style=”border: 1px solid #000000; width: 600px; height: 211px;”>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;State
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Application Type<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Dimensions for Buffer<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Sites
<br />
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Alabama
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Aerial application &nbsp;Regulations prohibit drift only when there is damage
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;400 ft. &nbsp;None specified
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Schools, hospitals, nursing homes, places of worship
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Alaska
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Aerial application &nbsp;Regulations prohibiting drift for off-site damage
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp; 200 ft. (surface water drinking source); 35 ft. (other waters) &nbsp;None
specified
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Forest management project
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Arizona<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Certain odiferous pesticides &nbsp;Certain highly toxic pesticides or paraquat
&nbsp;Certain toxic liquid pesticides &nbsp;Aerial application, certain highly toxic
pesticides &nbsp;Certain highly toxic pesticides
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;1/4 m. &nbsp;400 ft. &nbsp;100 ft. (aircraft) or 50 ft. (ground) &nbsp;300
ft. &nbsp;1/4 m.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Schools, daycares, health care institutions, 25+ residences adjoining field
&nbsp;Health care institutions &nbsp;25+ residences adjoining field &nbsp;25+ residences
adjoining field &nbsp;Schools, daycare centers
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Arkansas
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Aerial application of restricted pesticides &nbsp;Ground application of restricted
pesticides &nbsp;Application of restricted use herbicides
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;1 m. to 4 m. depending on the wind speed and direction &nbsp;1 m. to 1/2 m.
depending on wind speed and direction &nbsp;Zoning requirements based on wind speed,
crops, distance to canopy, etc.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;All Arkansas &nbsp; &nbsp;All Arkansas
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;California
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Ground application &nbsp;Methyl bromide fumigation &nbsp;Aerial application
of most pesticides &nbsp;Ground application of most pesticides &nbsp;Pesticide management
zones &nbsp;General prohibition against non target damage
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;1/4 m. &nbsp;300 ft.<br />
<br />
&nbsp;300 ft. &nbsp;60 ft. &nbsp;1 mile square &nbsp;None specified
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Schools &nbsp;Schools, residences, hospitals, convalescent homes, onsite employee
housing &nbsp;Salmon supporting waters &nbsp;Salmon supporting waters &nbsp;Areas
sensitive to groundwater pollution
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Connecticut
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Dust pesticides &nbsp;Aerial application
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;100 ft. &nbsp;1/2 acre
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Public highway &nbsp;Municipal or private owned public parks, playgrounds,
swimming areas
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Florida
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Aerial application of organo auxin herbicides &nbsp;Ground application of
organo auxin herbicides &nbsp;Restricted use applications
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Up to 2 m. downwind &nbsp;Up to 1/2 m. downwind &nbsp;300 ft. or 1000 ft.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Susceptible crops &nbsp;Susceptible crops &nbsp;Wells used for human consumption
which may be extended
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Idaho
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Ground application &nbsp;Highly volatile ester formulations &nbsp;Low volatile
ester &nbsp;Aerial application of some restricted chemicals like parathion
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;None given &nbsp;5 m. &nbsp;1 m. &nbsp;1/2 m.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Around homes and gardens &nbsp;Susceptible crops or hazard area &nbsp;Susceptible
crops or hazard area &nbsp;Hazard areas, canyon breaks and the Clearwater-Snake
River drainage
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Illinois
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Ground application of fertilizers<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;3 ft.<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Waterways
<br />
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Iowa
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Aerial or ground application &nbsp;Atrazine application
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;25 ft. to 30 ft. &nbsp;100 ft.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Susceptible crops &nbsp;Well, cistern, sinkhole, streambed, lake, water impoundment
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Kansas
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Judicial decision prohibits offsite damage from drift, no regulations<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;None specified
<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Louisiana
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Maine
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Maryland
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Massachusetts
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Michigan
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Minnesota
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Mississippi
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New Hampshire<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New Jersey<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New York<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;North Carolina<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Ohio
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Oklahoma
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Oregon
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Pennsylvania
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Rhode Island<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Utah
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Vermont
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Washington
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;West Virginia<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Wisconsin
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
&nbsp;
<p class=”Pa8″>
<strong>State preemption grew out of drift</strong>
<p class=”Pa8″>
In 1979, Mendocino County, California was among the first lo­cal jurisdiction in
the country to pass an ordinance prohibiting the aerial application of phenoxy herbicides
because of drift. The measure was passed after an incident in 1977 that resulted
in herbicide drift on school buses nearly three miles away from the application
site. After a California State Supreme Court decision upheld the right of citizens
to adopt more protective standards than the state and federal government (The People
v. County of Mendocino, 1984), the California legislature passed legislation taking
away that right. The constitutionality of the law was upheld in the Court of Appeals
for the Third Appel­late District (1986).
<p class=”Pa8″>
The issue of federal preemption of local ordinances made its way to the U.S. Supreme
Court and it ruled in 1991 in Wisconsin Public Intervenor v. Ralph Mortier that
federal law (the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) does not preempt
local restrictions. The pesticide lobby then went to all states without preemption
clauses seeking and getting, in most cases, amendments to state laws that specifically
pre­empt local jurisdiction. Today, only ten states allow their local jurisdictions
to restrict pesticide use.
<p class=”Pa8″>
<strong>Buffer zones</strong>
<p class=”Pa8″>
Buffer zones, areas where pesticide spray applications are pro­hibited, can reduce
unconsented exposure from spray drift on to school property, residential areas and
other sensitive sites. Seven states have recognized the importance of controlling
drift by restricting pesticide applications around these sites. State required buffer
zones range from 100 feet to 2 1/2 miles, depending on the application method, pesticide
type and site to be protected from potential drift.
<p class=”Pa8″>
The U.S. District Court in Seattle issued an injunction in January 2004, as a result
of Washington Toxics Coalition, et al. v. EPA, that put in place no-spray zones
of 100 yards for aerial applications and 20 yards for ground applications of more
than 30 pesticides from &ldquo;salmon-supporting waters&rdquo; in west coast states.
The judge&rsquo;s ruling in the case found EPA out of com­pliance with the Endangered
Species Act for failing to protect salmon from harmful pesticides.
<p class=”Default”>
<strong>State Notification Requirements For Agricultural Pesticide Applications</strong>&nbsp;
<p class=”Pa8″>
<table style=”border: 1px solid #000000; width: 600px; height: 211px;”>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;State
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Application Type<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Notification Type, Application
<br />
&nbsp;Distance
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Sites
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Alaska
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Arizona
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Arkansas
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;California
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Colorado
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Connecticut
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;D.C.
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Florida
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Georgia
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Hawaii
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Illinois
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Indiana
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Iowa
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Kansas
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Kentucky
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Louisiana
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Maine
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Maryland
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Massachusetts
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Michigan
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Minnesota
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Missouri
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Montana
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Nebraska
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New Hampshire<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New Jersey<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;New York<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;North Carolina<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Oklahoma
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Oregon
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Pennsylvania
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Rhode Island<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;South Dakota<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Tennessee
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Texas
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Vermont
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Virginia
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Washington
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;West Virginia<br />
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Wisconsin
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;Wyoming
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
<td style=”border: 1px solid #000000;”>
&nbsp;
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
&nbsp;
<p class=”Pa8″>
<strong>Mitigating pesticide drift</strong>
<p class=”Pa8″>
EPA&rsquo;s standard pesticide label requirement, which instructs the user to avoid
drift, is viewed as inadequate and unenforceable. Community members often advocate
for sustainable, organic alternatives to pesticide use to avoid altogether the harmful
effects of pesticide drift.
<p class=”Pa8″>
Technical fixes have limited ability to control drift. Despite improved engineering
of nozzles and droplet size, real world experience demonstrates that applicators
are often not trained to use the technology correctly and frequently spray in weather
conditions that exacerbate drift. The fact that acute poisonings still occur with
disturbing regularity (sub-acute or chronic poisonings are even more common) suggests
that more of the same &ldquo;technology enhancement&rdquo; approaches will not solve
the problem.
<p style=”margin: 12pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Buffer Zones</strong>. To protect against vapor chemical drift, meaningful
buffer zones require a two-mile radius around the residential and school property
and other sensitive sites. Aerial applications should have a larger buffer zone,
at least three-miles encircling the designated property. No-deposit buffer zones,
which reduce the impact of particle drift, should encompass a minimum of 400 feet.
<p style=”margin: 8pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Time of Day</strong>. Ultimately, buffer zones should be in effect at
all times of the day, especially for sensitive sites such as residential areas,
schools and hospitals. For schools, it is critical for spray restrictions to be
in place, at a minimum, during commuting times and while students and employees
are on school property to protect against airborne exposure.
<p style=”margin: 4pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Communication</strong>. Farmers should meet with nearby prop­erty owners,
residents, and school officials to talk about which pesticides are planned for use,
establish emergency plans for accidental exposure, and share schedules when certain
sensitive sites, such as parks and schools, will be in use.
<p class=”Pa32″ style=”margin: 8pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Notification. </strong>Ideally, pesticide applicators should provide 48-hour
prior notification to all occupants and users of sensitive sites within a three-mile
radius. Notification, at a minimum, should include the time and location of the
ap­plication, the pesticide product name, known ingredients, and applicator contact
information. Currently, eight states provide some type of notification of agricultural
pesticides to nearby property occupants and users. (See Table 2). Twenty-one states
provide some type of notification of lawn and landscape pesticide applications to
abutting property. (See page 16).
<p style=”margin: 5pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Wind Breaks</strong>. The use of natural or artificial wind shields or
breaks can help deflect and contain spray drift away from sensitive areas.28
<p style=”margin: 6pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Pesticide Choice</strong>. Because completely eliminating drift is virtually
impossible, growers and pesticide applicators should use the least toxic substances.
Products with label temperature restrictions should be avoided. Avoid using chemicals
that volatilize rapidly from moist soil, such as butyul ester or butoxyethanol ester,
because they are more likely to result in vapor drift. Application of the most toxic
pesticides, including carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, reproductive toxins, developmental
toxins, neurotoxins and pesticides listed by EPA as a toxicity category I or II
pesticide, should be prohibited from use.
<p style=”margin: 6pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Application Equipment</strong>. Drift increases significantly as boom
height on spray equipment increases. When boom height doubles, drift increases 350%.
Sprayers should be set up to produce the largest droplets (at least 200 microns).
Large droplets are more likely to maintain momentum, actually reach the target pest,
and not get carried away with air movement. Other equipment con­siderations include
spray pressure, nozzle size, nozzle orientation, vehicle operating speed, shields
on sprayers and nozzles and application rate. Ultimately, aerial and other problematic
spray technologies should be prohib­ited altogether.
<p style=”margin: 6pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Weather</strong>. Application of a pesticide should never take place when
a sensitive area is downwind, no matter the wind speed. Drift potential decreases
as wind speeds de­crease. Technicians identify optimal conditions as three to ten
miles per hour winds blowing away from sensitive areas. Other weather considerations
include: air tem­perature, relative humidity, topography and atmospheric stability
(check for temperature inversion which can cause small-suspended droplets to move
long distances).29
<p style=”margin: 4pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Enforcement of Pesticide Regulations</strong>. State pesticide lead agency
inspectors should routinely inspect planes, equipment, and application sites to
ensure that regulations are being followed, and to prevent potentially damag­ing
exposure to drift from pesticide applications. Drift incidents should be reported
to state enforcement agen­cies, which must, under federal pesticide law, conduct
an investigation and a response within 30 days.
<p style=”margin: 4pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-indent: -0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
&nbsp;
<p style=”margin: 4pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-indent: -0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
<strong>Detecting Drift</strong>
<p style=”margin: 3pt 0in;”>
&nbsp;
<p style=”margin: 3pt 0in;”>
There are several ways to identify whether a pesticide has drifted on to non-target
property. The obvious would be if a cloud of pesticide drift was visually evident
or if there are damaged crops or vegetation. But drift is usually invisible. Therefore,
drift can be documented through the use of cards, filters, panels, plastic, and
air sampling equipment.
<p class=”Pa9″ style=”text-align: justify;”>
After collecting drift samples, it is best to know what chemicals are being used
and collected because analytical laboratories evaluating the samples charge per
pesticide. (Find a lab through the American Association of Laboratory Accreditation
at www.a2La.org.) If cards are used, knowing whether the pesticide is water or oil
based will guide which type of card to use. It is also important that the collecting
device be placed appropriately on the property. In addition, samples need to be
collected as soon as possible after the suspected drift, preferably within two hours,
and placed in a sealed plastic bag and in a cold, dry place in order to pre­serve
the pesticide before it begins to breakdown. Due to the complexities and costs associated
with detecting pesticides, please contact Beyond Pesticides for advice on identifying
which methods are most appropriate and a strategy for where and how to set up the
detection unit.
<p style=”margin: 7pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Cards. </strong>Water and oil-sensitive cards can show pesticide droplet
size and distribution Simply attach cards to wherever drift may be taking place,
such as along the property&rsquo;s fence line, trees, garden or structure. Draw­backs:
These cards are sensitive to not only pesticides. Very fine droplets may not get
detected. (50 cards per pack, $39.95 for water-sensitive, $34.95 for oil-sensitive,
www.gemplers.com)
<p style=”margin: 7pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Filters</strong>. Filter paper can be used to capture the pesticide and
sent to a lab to identify the pesticide concentration. Because you will not be able
to see if the filter captures pesticide drift, it should be placed next to cards.
Draw­backs: Filters need to be carefully placed and handled. (Whatman Grade No.1,
100 filter papers, $4.59, www.sargentwelch.com)
<p style=”margin: 7pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Panels</strong>. Drive a stake in the ground and attach a 12&rdquo;X12&rdquo;
piece of cardboard covered with a sheet of aluminum foil to the top with a small
roofing nail. Use caution and spray the upper surface with a little sticky tack.
The acetone carrier will dry in a few seconds leaving a film that will trap pesticides.
Once the pesticide has been collected, roll the foil up and carefully store it.
Drawbacks: Same as with filters.
<p style=”margin: 7pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Plastic</strong>. Black plastic garbage bags can be placed around the
property as a way to detect pesticide droplets. It is easy and probably the least
expensive way to detect drift. Drawbacks: Whether or not a pesticide will show depends
on the droplet size.
<p style=”margin: 7pt 0in 0.0001pt 0.25in; text-align: justify;”>
? <strong>Air Sampling Equipment</strong>. Air sampling equipment to detect pesticides
can be rented or purchased. (SKC, Inc., www.skcinc.com) Available to select community
groups only, the Drift Catcher is being used by the Pesticide Ac­tion Network North
America to collect and measure air samples. Drawbacks: Equipment is very expensive.<strong>
</strong>
<p class=”Default” style=”margin-bottom: 2pt;”>
<strong>lf drift has harmed you</strong>
<p class=”Default” style=”margin-bottom: 2pt;”>
If pesticide drift is suspected as causing harm to you or your property: 1) evacuate
the area; 2) get medical attention; 3) find out what chemicals were used; and 4)
contact the state&rsquo;s lead pesticide agency and file a complaint while request­ing
that it send an investigator to take residue samples. It is important to file a
written complaint with copies to elected officials. The state is then responsible
for carrying out an investigation and taking an enforcement action (or decid­ing
not to) within 30 days. If the state fails to do this, it becomes the EPA&rsquo;s
responsibility. Follow up on all phone conversations with a letter confirming what
was discussed. Send around copies of letters, listing at the bottom of the letter,
all those to whom the letter was distributed, includ­ing, U.S. EPA, the Governor
and elected officials. This is critical if the lead agency is not helpful. &ldquo;See
What To Do In A Pesticide Emergency&rdquo; on the Beyond Pesticides <a href=”http://www.beyondpesticides.org/”>
website</a>
. Contact Beyond Pesticides at 202-543-5450, info@beyondpesticides.org.