Companion Planting With Vegetables and Flowers

The right plant combos will save space and provide weed and pest control.

  • fly
    Grow sweet alyssum to provide nectar for hoverflies, which feed on aphids. 
    Photo by Adobestock/lawrence
  • Sweet Alyssum
    Grow sweet alyssum to provide nectar for hoverflies, which feed on aphids. 
  • Three Sisters Garden
    A “three sisters” garden consists of corn, pole beans and squash. The crops form a cooperative association in regards to light and root space. 
  • Companion Planting
    Gardeners sometimes say plants in good intercropping associations “just seem happy” — a worthy goal for any organic gardener.

  • fly
  • Sweet Alyssum
  • Three Sisters Garden
  • Companion Planting

Each spring, I grow legions of onions and shallots from seed, and my biggest challenge is keeping them weeded. Last year, I planted pinches of arugula between the short rows of shallots, and the leafy, fast-growing arugula smothered any weeds and showed remarkably little damage from flea beetles, which often plague it. The arugula was ready to harvest just when the shallots needed room to grow. In a eureka moment, I realized I had discovered a vegetable companion-planting partnership I could use year after year to make my garden healthier and more productive.

The idea of “companion planting” has been around for thousands of years, during which time it has become so besmirched with bad science and metaphysics that many gardeners aren’t sure what it means. The current definition goes something like this: Companion planting is the establishment of two or more species in close proximity so that some cultural benefit, such as pest control or increased yield, may be achieved.

Historically, North American and European gardeners have based many of their attempts with companion planting on widely published charts, which were mostly derived from funky chemistry experiments using plant extracts in the 1930s. But it turns out many of the plant partnerships listed in these “traditional” companion-planting charts don’t actually work well. Reaping the benefits of companion planting is possible, though, as long as you look to time-tested crop combinations.




Onions with leafy greens

Cabbage-family crops with leaf lettuce or radishes

Tomatoes with lettuce, radicchio or celery

Tomatoes with lima beans (hot climates)

Corn with pole beans and squash

Sweet corn with peppers

Broccoli with radishes and lettuce

Spinach with garlic






Companion Crop Combinations

In North America, Native American tribes from the Northeast to the Southwest developed highly specialized intercropping techniques to grow the “three sisters” — corn, pole beans and squash. (There is a fourth sister, sunflower, but she didn’t make it into the early stories.) Three sisters gardens vary in shape, size and planting style (raised mounds in the East and North, recessed waffle beds in the Southwest). The three (or four) sisters technique works because the crops cooperate rather than compete with each other for light and root space. The corn supports the bean vines, the squash shades out weeds, and the roots of the different plants get along nicely below ground.

But what about all of the other vegetables you want to grow? An experienced gardener from China wouldn’t be surprised by my success with onions and arugula, because intercropping of vegetables is the traditional way to garden in China’s most fertile regions. Plant associations that work well are shared among neighbors, as everyone has learned that intercropping is more efficient, reduces weed and pest pressure, and lowers the risk of crop failure. Chinese intercropping practices use a broad range of crops, which makes them easy to replicate in a diversified organic garden.

Agricultural researchers have noted that the paired plants in Chinese intercropping practices usually differ in height, maturation period and rooting habit. In addition, many gardeners in China grow the following intercropped vegetables back-to-back during the course of the growing season:

3/30/2016 5:38:44 PM

Last year I did a lot of interplanting in the vegetable garden for the first time. I planted cucumbers and bush beans and tomatoes all mixed in together in one row. I planted carrots with tomatoes and arthichokes in another. I mixed nasurchiams with potatoes in another garden plot. But it is very untidy and confusing at first especially when plants are still small and somewhat unidentifiable. Between the interplanting and the chickens eating up the bugs I had very little pest problems. The only problem I struggled to keep on top of was ants on the artichokes. Here's a drawing of my gardening plan for this year. ( This plan uses even more interplanting.

3/27/2016 8:23:12 AM

When planting vegetables that are not supposed to be planted near each other (for example tomatoes and potatoes) how near can you actually plant them? I use raised beds, but I have limited space, so some plants are near each other but not in the same bed. What is the general rule for this?

3/9/2015 2:05:02 PM

Great post! I've always found companion planting super interesting and have done it for several of my veggies! You really can taste the difference when you plant garlic close to your veggies, too!



Fall 2021!

Put your DIY skills to the test throughout November. We’re mixing full meal recipes in jars, crafting with flowers, backyard composting, cultivating mushrooms, and more!


Subscribe Today - Pay Now & Save 64% Off the Cover Price

50 Years of Money-Saving Tips!

Mother Earth NewsAt MOTHER EARTH NEWS for 50 years and counting, we are dedicated to conserving our planet's natural resources while helping you conserve your financial resources. You'll find tips for slashing heating bills, growing fresh, natural produce at home, and more. That's why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for only $12.95 (USA only).

You may also use the Bill Me option and pay $17.95 for 6 issues.

Canadian Subscribers - Click Here
International Subscribers - Click Here
Canadian subscriptions: 1 year (includes postage & GST).

Facebook Pinterest Instagram YouTube Twitter flipboard

Free Product Information Classifieds Newsletters