Raising Chickens for Meat: Do-It-Yourself Pastured Poultry

Want to ensure that the bird on your plate was treated humanely and processed safely? Trying raising chickens for meat yourself.
By Gwen Roland
June/July 2009

Raising chickens for meat on pastureland provides entertainment and a superior dining experience to flavorless supermarket fowl.
PHOTO: PRESTON ROLAND
Slideshow


Content Tools

Related Content

Our Greatest Challenge: Breeding a Productive Chicken!

With just about every breed of standard bred, heritage poultry, we have work to do. They are not pro...

Chevron: Butchering a Goat

Sherry’s son worked hard to raise a goat. Read how he, with the help of family and friends, butchere...

Cornish Cross or Heritage Chicken: Which Do You Prefer?

Cornish cross and heritage chickens are two types of chickens often used for meat. There’s considera...

National Animal Shelter Appreciation Week

This week is the 12th annual National Animal Shelter Appreciation Week.

Let’s get the hard part over with first. I hug the hefty white rooster close to my chest to keep him calm on the way to the killing station. With one smooth move, I turn him upside down and place him snuggly in the cone. My left hand continues downward to gently extend his neck. I grab the knife with my right hand and swipe off his head. While he bleeds out, I dry my eyes. That’s how a chicken lover has to do it.

Strangely, it’s only because I have life-long affection for chickens that I can kill them at all. If I didn’t care about them, I would just eat store-bought chicken. I only eat meat once or twice a week — but it’s important to me that the animal lived well and died humanely, with barely a blink between life and death. I nurture them in exchange for their nurturing me.

Even though I have raised them for years, I never expected to raise chickens for meat. After they provide delicious eggs, I retire my layers to the barnyard, where they help manage manure, turn compost, and fill my woodlot with industrious melody. But Barbara Kingsolver’s book Animal, Vegetable, Miracle convinced me that I could raise my own meat birds. So in 2008 I raised and processed two small flocks of the Cornish and white rock cross, usually referred to as Cornish crosses. They are the fast-growing birds raised in confinement operations to supply restaurants and supermarkets with everything from nuggets to whole birds.

Spring Flock

In April 2008, I shared an order of Cornish cross chicks with my friend Jim. Of my 10 chicks, one died the first day. The other nine spent their first couple of weeks on my porch in a borrowed brooder that kept them thermostatically correct day and night. The brooder was supposed to be their home until they feathered out — about three weeks or so — but I wanted them to enjoy green grass and sunshine as long as possible, so I started transferring them outside to the floorless A-frame coop on sunny days when they were a week old. I’d bring them back to the brooder at night. I had read that Cornish cross birds were not robust enough to handle outdoor living, but mine didn’t seem to know that.

In just a few days, they were so heavy I could carry only half the flock at a time or risk breaking the bottom out of the pet carrier. After another couple of days, I could only carry three at a time.

Genetically programmed for less than a two-month lifespan, my flock began to look elderly as they approached their eighth week. When they spied me coming with their feed bucket, they would waddle at full speed on bowed legs, their short wings flapping for an extra boost. The roosters’ rumps were conspicuously dirty from resting so often in the holes they had dug in the soft garden soil. They still sprinted to the compost pile to compete for earthworms, but the effort made them wheeze.

By the end of May, our Georgia weather was unseasonably hot. Even in the shade of the big hickory trees, the chickens looked so uncomfortable that I set out box fans in the afternoons. The birds jostled for position in front of the fan blades, little combs and wattles flapping in the breeze. Even though none of mine developed the leg or heart problems that can come from growing so fast, they were ready to lay it down by the time we picked a slaughter date.

Dispatching our combined flock of 20 birds took less time than we expected. It was 8 a.m. when my husband, Preston, and I arrived at Jim’s farm with our little flock. Jim already had two homemade killing cones nailed to trees, a large pot of water heating over a propane burner, and a clothesline strung between two oaks as a plucking station. He had worked in a commercial chicken processing plant as a youngster, so he taught the rest of us how to process birds according to standard food and safety guidelines.

After everyone had an opportunity to try all the tasks, the most efficient process became for Jim to behead, scald and hang them on the clothesline. His wife, Jayne, and I plucked — by far the most time-consuming part of the process. A tarp under the plucking station collected the feathers for easy removal. Plucked birds were placed in a large plastic barrel filled with cold water. Next stop was the evisceration table. Then each bird was placed in a cooler packed with ice.

By 11:15 a.m., all the birds were on ice. A recycled feed bag held the entrails, feet, heads, and feathers with room to spare. It was three hours from start to finish, but the actual processing time was closer to two hours — Jim and Jayne had spent part of that time teaching the rest of us how to complete each step safely and thoroughly.

Fall Flock

I wasn’t planning on raising another flock anytime soon, but in mid-August one of my Rhode Island red layers went broody. I was curious as to whether this hen could take the worry and work out of raising meat chicks through the brooder stage, so I ordered some Cornish cross chicks for her. She accepted each one of the peeping fluffballs, stretching her wings wider and wider trying to cover them all. She taught them to forage in the garden, and protected them from being pecked by the other layers.

When the chicks were 7 weeks old, I hosted a second chicken harvest. This one was easier for all of us because we knew what to expect.  

Hearing about our satisfaction, more local foodies have asked to join us this year. Some families would like to raise birds, but can’t bear the thought of slaughtering them. They are planning to team up with others who can slaughter but lack the experience or facilities for raising chickens.

Chicks and Balances

Even though I raised the broilers for humane reasons, I kept records to see how much they cost. Stepping on the bathroom scales on the way to the freezer, I found that a rooster carcass added about 8 pounds to my weight, while the two hens added between 5 and 6 pounds. These aren’t scales certified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, but it seems fair to estimate that the nine birds translated into about 60 pounds of chicken in my freezer. The chicks and their feed cost $62. That means the total cost was about $1 per pound — a bargain in my opinion.

While you might think that allowing birds to forage in pasture would save on the feed bill while increasing their weight gain, research shows that calories used when foraging, compensating for cooler outdoor temperatures, scratching in the dirt, and simply enjoying a natural chicken life are not necessarily made up for by the extra nutrition derived from foraging. Some pastured poultry enthusiasts report that their birds consume 10 to 30 percent less feed when on pasture, but according to researchers Andrew Walker and Sue Gordon, who presented their findings at the University of Leeds in 2002, the reduction in feed is actually closer to 5 percent or less. This is because poultry have short guts, and they would simply fill up before they could obtain enough nutrition to survive on grass. In fact, Walker and Gordon’s research found that most of the protein available to pastured chickens comes from worms, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, and other critters.

What I Learned

Broilers vs. layers. The biggest difference is the quick return on the investment of time and money when raising meat chickens instead of layers. Fast-growing broiler breeds can be on the table in less than two months; even gourmet meat breeds only take 12 weeks. In contrast, layers need about five months to produce their first eggs, and they require roosts, nest boxes, and winter housing. Meat birds just need protection from weather and predators.

Emotional stress. I was surprised by how much it bothered me to kill the females in the first flock. The cockerels seemed to be just mindless eating machines lubricated with testosterone. Of the two females in my first flock, one was a nervous wreck who was convinced from day one that I planned to kill her. The other one used to peck at my foot until I sat down on the grass, then she would sit in my lap. If there had been any future for her, I would have kept her alive. But not only would my layers pick on her without a mother hen’s protection, her white feathers would have made her an easy-to-spot meal for predators. I still think about her.

In general though, finding out how quickly I could make the mental leap from nurturing to killing helped me understand Joel Salatin’s warning that a person should not kill chickens every day. He says slaughtering too often can blunt our natural feelings of compassion for other living creatures.

When I fried the first chicken for a Sunday dinner, the fragrance alone obliterated the memory of all my work and worry. The flavor was fried chicken in the purest sense — honest, unforgettable, and worth much more than I had invested.

Feeding. All my chickens have access to pasture, a three-acre wood lot, and worms in my compost piles. Garden trimmings and kitchen scraps also contribute much to their diet. In addition, the broilers were confined in a fallow garden spot twice a day so they could fill up on the concentrated feed they are genetically designed to utilize without being bothered by the layer hens, the goats, or the Great Pyrenees pooch that lived with them.

The nine birds in the spring flock used 3 1⁄2 bags of feed in their 8 1⁄2 weeks, including much that was wasted due to my placing the feeder too low, forgetting to protect the feeder from rain, and other management shortcomings. The second flock of three used a little more than one sack in seven weeks. That includes what the mother hen ate. Both flocks ate commercial starter/grower ration their entire lives. If I raise Cornish cross birds in the future, it seems safe to figure about one sack of feed for every three birds if I slaughter them at 7 weeks.

There are many mix-your-own feed recipes in the poultry discussion lists on the Internet, but my small flocks did fine on the basic starter/grower brands available at our local feed store.

Slaughter age. I will slaughter Cornish crosses at less than 8 weeks from now on to ensure they enjoy the best quality of life. At 8 1⁄2 weeks, the spring flock lived about a week too long for comfortable breathing and walking. At 7 weeks, my second flock was sound and active. When I experiment with the slower-growing birds, the slaughter age will be closer to 12 weeks.

Season. It makes sense to raise meat birds later in the season in Georgia. The August heat welcomes them as chicks and then cools down in September and October as they feather out and get heavier. The season also affects the slaughter date. Our June slaughter event resulted in odor and flies at the processing site, while the October and November harvests did not.

Foster hen. This method wins hands down for the small homesteader who doesn’t like to bother with a brooder and happens to have some broody hens.

Brooding about Breeds

Cornish cross hybrids. Most people who raise table birds buy Cornish cross chicks for their first flock because they are widely available and grow rapidly, producing a 5-pound live bird (3.5-pound carcass) in about six or seven weeks. Because they gain weight so rapidly, Cornish cross birds can suffer from heart problems and broken legs. Some people avoid them on the principle that perpetuating these genetics is inhumane. Producers of pastured poultry would like to see the best characteristics of the Cornish cross combined with more foraging ability and increased hardiness for outdoor weather.

Some pastured poultry connoisseurs say Cornish cross birds lack the flavor of slower-growing breeds, but I’m a typical American who is accustomed to lighter meat. I rate the flavor of my flocks as perfect — a more pronounced chicken flavor than store-bought birds, but not overpowering; firm, but not stringy or tough.

European-type hybrids. Sometimes called label-rouge types after a popular production system in France, these birds reach 5 pounds live weight in 12 weeks and are harvested close to sexual maturity. They are considered more flavorful than faster-growing hybrids and have a firmer texture. Compared to Cornish crosses, they have smaller breasts and more dark meat. They are said to be hardier and more active foragers than Cornish crosses, making them more suitable for pasturing, but there is some debate surrounding this. To learn more, search for project number GS03-029 under the “Project Reports” tab at the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education website.

Heritage chickens. Old breeds such as buckeye, Delaware, New Hampshire and barred Plymouth rocks have not been bred for meat-production characteristics since the 1950s, so they are slower-growing than birds that have been bred for greater feed conversion efficiency. However, many backyard chicken fanciers prefer to raise the old standards because they are hardy for outdoor living, disease resistant, and they have a pronounced chicken flavor.

Jeannette Beranger, research and technical program manager for the The Livestock Conservancy, says that it is important to choose a breed that works for your climate and the system in which you plan to manage them. (The best source we know of for this information is Storey’s Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds by Carol Ekarius. — MOTHER EARTH NEWS) Once you’ve decided on the breeds you think would work for you, the Conservancy can suggest a breeder. Beranger also advises that, while these breeds love to forage, they will need high-protein feed to produce a good result.

“Common commercial poultry rations are typically not high enough in protein,” Beranger says. “They need at least 28 percent, particularly in the first eight weeks, or they will never reach their potential for growth.” Adding high-protein supplements such as meat scraps or whey to their diet would help, but may be more of a challenge than a beginner would want to tackle.


Poultry Processing Made Easier

Buying or renting special processing equipment will speed up the time it takes to ready your birds for the freezer. Elaine Fawcett of Aurora, Ore., owns Featherman processing equipment and rents it to others. “After you’ve plucked a few by hand, you really appreciate how the equipment makes the process more efficient,” she says.

Tiffany Johnson of Vancouver, Wash., advocates renting the equipment. “Four of us processed our batch of 50 ‘colored range’ chickens in just under five hours,” she says. “After you fumble your way through a couple of birds and learn what works best for you, processing a bird really doesn’t take that long. Especially with the scalder and plucker!”

If you don’t have enough chickens (or other poultry) to justify purchasing processing equipment, renting may be a good option for you. The Featherman website lists people with equipment for rent. For those who raise their own meat, processing it with friends and neighbors can be a great community-building event.


Resources for Raising Chickens

MOTHER EARTH NEWS Hatchery Finder 
National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA)
Robert Plamondon's website

Also, check out the Chicken and Egg Page, plus Poultry Resources.


Previous | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Next






Post a comment below.

 

green4nature
3/28/2014 4:10:35 PM
Great article this is my first time with the Cross birds. How soon do you allow them in the pasture and what types of scraps can I give them in addition to the chicken feed? I heard they dont taste good on the chicken feed alone! Does anyone know?

Daffy
2/10/2014 12:33:10 AM
I really appreciate reading your article. I raise meat rabbits currently and would like to raise meat chickens this spring through fall for my family. I am considering raising Freedom Rangers. I live in the country by a woods and we have all sorts of predators, coons, opossums, foxes, coyotes, stray cats and dogs. I am think of making a pvc chicken tractor for 50 birds. I plan to share with my family. How big should my chicken tractor be? or should I make two separate chicken tractors? I have 2 acres to use, so space isn't a problem. I've heard using 1/4 hardware fencing around the sides and top is the best because coons can tear up regular chicken wire fencing. Since most of these predators will and can dig underneath, I was think of using 2in x 3in wire fencing on the bottom. I know this will prevent them from being able to scratch freely but I figure it's better than finding them dead come morning. Any ideas or suggestions are appreciated. Thank you!

Eric Kiefer
12/12/2013 12:39:59 PM
I've been on the fence about raising a dozen meat birds for a while. Thanks for this great article. I was still on the fence but then I read Carol's comment and have decided that I will raise 24, not 12 meat birds. I'll kill an extra 12 in her honor. I can't wait for spring!

paul.barthle
4/24/2013 9:30:05 AM

Interesting explanation for sqeamish folk, Gwen.  I always felt that how an animal lived was just as important as how it died.  I moved to an apartment recently so experimentation with livestock is out of the question for now, but I have been wondering about capons.  Recent articles about how cockerels are "reprocessed" by poultry suppliers made me think about trying to find a simple method for small farmers to produce their own capons but I have not found anything online about up-to-date techniques.  I have friends in Cuba that I would like to support with organic and sustainable gardening information.  The government run hatcheries are essentially modeled after corporate agriculture systems and also turn their cockerels into protein feed supplement.  My question is would it be worthwhile to purchase cockerels from the hatchery, preferably at a lower cost, to produce pastured capons?  I also would like to see if the farmers could grow some of their own high protein feed because imported soy is expensive.  I have seen Quinoa and Amaranth seed in catalogs, for instance. Millet, sorghum and sunflower all grow there quite nicely.  Could some seed be stretched by sprouting it in trays of compost?  Much of Cuban agriculture has had to move to organic out of necessity, but I fear that the island will be drenched in pesticides as soon as foreign investment becomes readily available.  It would be nice if the farmers there have a reason to keep away from excess chemicals in the future.


Carol
3/22/2013 5:47:58 AM
My God! You are all very SICK people. Do you not know that it is ot necessary or healthy to eat animals? You are all murderers. SHAME ON YOU!

Kym Roberts-Hardesty
4/18/2012 9:48:42 PM
Can I buy all roosters since they are larger than the hens and they will only be with us for 7-8 weeks?

Bob Burns
1/20/2012 1:29:18 PM
Gwen - Thanks for a great read. I'm in the process of trying to understand how to rear chickens and am planning on giving it a try - kind of a cross between a city boy yearning to be a country boy and the desire to eat clean, healthy food.

jim adams
9/20/2011 12:53:01 AM
Hey Gwen ... thanks for your article of your trials and tribulations of how you started raising chickens and learned to love it. Us too. My wife and i copied Joel Salatin ( he was our mentor) and ended up doing it as a small business for 8 to 10 years. Since then, we raise for ourselves. Like you, we've gone to S & G Poultry in Alabama, to we decided on the Red Rangers for meat chickens, and the Dixie Rainbows (a heavy dual purpose breed) for egg layers ... and then stewing chickens when they aged enough. We note that the much manipulated genome of the Cornish Cross produces what we call "the industrial drone model" chicken, starting at about 3 weeks. In addition to the ongoing leg problems, Cornish X have what one friend calls a "feed efficiency gene" but i call eternally hungry. Red Rangers take 11 weeks to grow to an average 5# bird, ready to go into the oven. In addition, i find that they are both livelier, and much better foragers, and the amount of grass they eat goes way up if i give them gravel (1//8" or so as chicks, and 1/4-3/8 inch from 4 or 5 weeks to slaughter). Anyhow ... thanks, from jim

RashidM
2/14/2011 5:47:03 PM
Creative ways of feeding large amounts of chickens with less cost would be ideal... after all, the idea of raising boutique chickens may be fine for the richer folks, but what about poor folk? A plan that allows us to be competitive to the large farmers will aid in making this humane method more economically viable.

Kathleen Pelley
6/22/2010 10:45:17 AM
I subscribe to this magazine because I appreciate articles like the one on hanging clothes out on a clothesline, but in the same issue was dead chickens. I was just as horrified by them now as I was when I was five and watched my grandparents butchering the chickens that I had just fed grubs to. Please leave these kinds of graphic pictures out for someone like me who has been a lacto-ovo vegetarian since 1976.

JEANINE GURLEY
8/3/2009 8:08:49 PM
Gwen, Thank you so much for putting into words what I have always felt but could never explain. I can’t count the times when I have been told I was ‘cold-hearted’ to ever consider killing an animal I raised. Now I have your article and I have already given it out to two people as an answer to that comment. It is precisely BECAUSE I care that I can raise my own animals for slaughter. I was taught by my grandmother that raising an animal for meat is a responsibility not to be taken lightly. She was very particular about every aspect of the animal’s life – and death. I live very near a chicken plant and it just hurts my heart to see the tractor trailers loaded with live birds all smashed together in cages going down the road. My girls will eat watermelon rind and take dust baths in the sunshine until their very last day.

Gwen Roland
7/23/2009 8:38:59 AM
Hi Greg, After my first season of raising the commercial cornish cross birds, I agree with you about not wanting to promote those genetics, even though mine did not suffer any leg problems and seemed just as happy and healthy as the Rhode Island Reds they mingled with in my yard. However now that I know more about meat breeds, I plan to use only slower growing birds from now on. While researching for the article I found out about family-owned hatcheries that specialize in slower growing breeds suitable for pasturing. This year I'm going with Dixie Rainbows from S&G Poultry in Alabama. The breeder tells me they trace the line back 200 years in Northern Italy, and if I keep a breeding pair I can raise my own. I'll let you know how they work out. Gwen

Greg T.
6/11/2009 12:28:27 PM
What an excellent glimpse into the start of raising a meat flock! This is our first year raising a "dedicated" meat flock instead of the cockerel culls from a straight run hatch of our laying flock, and boy are the differences apparent. At 4 weeks out, our cornish crosses are bigger than the turkey poults. The taste results will be interesting to compare, but I admit to feeling a bit dirty keeping these poor protein producing machines. :-/ They've been inside these past few weeks since central NY gets darn chilly at times, but this weekend is their big move out of doors into my erstwhile sheep fence paddock with a moving tractor to sleep in. If anyone wants a detailed tutorial on one method of processing chickens, start to finish, there are some here in M-E-N, and you can pick one up on my journal at http://a-triath.livejournal.com/129276.html#cutid1 Again, not the ONLY way, maybe not the best way. . . but if you've never done it before, it's a good place to start.








Subscribe Today - Pay Now & Save 66% Off the Cover Price

First Name: *
Last Name: *
Address: *
City: *
State/Province: *
Zip/Postal Code:*
Country:
Email:*
(* indicates a required item)
Canadian subs: 1 year, (includes postage & GST). Foreign subs: 1 year, . U.S. funds.
Canadian Subscribers - Click Here
Non US and Canadian Subscribers - Click Here

Lighten the Strain on the Earth and Your Budget

MOTHER EARTH NEWS is the guide to living — as one reader stated — “with little money and abundant happiness.” Every issue is an invaluable guide to leading a more sustainable life, covering ideas from fighting rising energy costs and protecting the environment to avoiding unnecessary spending on processed food. You’ll find tips for slashing heating bills; growing fresh, natural produce at home; and more. MOTHER EARTH NEWS helps you cut costs without sacrificing modern luxuries.

At MOTHER EARTH NEWS, we are dedicated to conserving our planet’s natural resources while helping you conserve your financial resources. That’s why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for only $12.00 (USA only).

You may also use the Bill Me option and pay $17.00 for 6 issues.