Ruth Stout And Permanent Hay Mulch

Ruth Stout's "no work" gardening method was covering everything in hay mulch and leaving it alone until harvest time.

  • Ruth Stout Hay Mulch
    Ruth Stout, lying amidst her much beloved hay.
  • Ruth Stout Hay Mulch
    Ruth's method was simple: spreads on the hay mulch, then harvest. We're cheating a bit by showing Ruth mulching onions rather than 'taters, but it's one of our favorite photos of her.

  • Ruth Stout Hay Mulch
  • Ruth Stout Hay Mulch

A generation ago, Ruth Stout was world famous as the "No-Work Gardener." Her secret was a layer of permanent straw or old-hay mulch over everything. She was best known for growing potatoes by "just throwing them" on the ground and covering them with hay. Then, in a couple of months, when tiny new spuds were developing, and onto full harvest time, she'd just "kick the straw aside" and pick potatoes off the ground.

There's not much agronomy to her system, but there is a lot of chatter involving her brother, then-popular mystery writer Rex Stout, Professor Richard Clements, and a large group of friends and correspondents. You'll have to read her delightfully old-fashioned books for the whole entertaining story. See Sources for a welcome new reprint of her delightful 1961 Gardening Without Work for the Aging, the Busy and the Indolent. Miss Stout gardened in a long "house dress" and kept at it till she died at age 91.

I've used her method off and on for years and it works ...most of the time. But I usually end up mulching with half-dollar bales of half-rotted wet hay that won't fluff up like fresh, dry hay or like that straw she talks about just tossin' on and kickin' aside. It peels off the rotten-string-bound bale in fairly dense, four-inch-thick "books" full of mold, mushroom roots, and field mouse nests. These can be laid out on the soil like floor tiles, and will dry and intermesh to some extent in the wind and sun.

New potato vines can have a struggle getting through the compressed hay. But after pushing some books up an alarming inch or two, the plants will manage to work through to the sun, and the books will flatten down. If the straw layer is kept up, potatoes grow at the soil/hay boundary, only half buried in the ground. Planting and harvest are indeed a snap. But toads adore a hay mulched garden, as do slugs and snails.

Drawbacks that never seemed to bother Miss Stout included slugs and snails, cold, wet spring weather, and mice and voles that would tunnel around, safe from predators, under the hay mat. In wet years, potato sets under a deep mulch will rot before they sprout, and slugs will get what's left; it is best to delay mulching till it warms up or plant well-started sets in bare spots raked out in the straw. In a bad vole year — typically following a short, mild winter — most of the tubers will be nibbled. Shallow wounds will heal over, but deeper ones will admit storage rot, preventing the crop from keeping. In my experience, you can tell if the gardening year will feature a vole explosion if the fishnet-like network of winter-foraging tunnels under the snow that's revealed briefly at the end of the snow melt is really extensive, covering the whole yard and garden. In this case, plant potatoes a good five inches deep in well-tilled bare soil.

Don't put up a scarecrow or you'll scare off hawks and owls that will soar over frequently because it's easy for them to spot marauding rodents on your bare garden soil. Keep the dogs in the backyard and the grass cut short in a wide apron all around the garden to deny deep rodent cover (rabbit and woodchuck cover as well), and don't mulch the garden till the ground dries out and rainfall totals less than an inch a week.

4/11/2019 12:05:15 PM

I use bales of green alfalfa. apply thickly, and whenever you need dry hay for say, the compost pile or to tuck around new growth, the next layer starts to dry. Meanwhile, underneath all of it the alfalfa is composting. It actually smells like horse manure. No it doesn't burn anything, weeds don't penetrate, it turns into crumbling dark soil. The upper layer prevents erosion and damage when watering or from wind and rain, and holds in the moisture. I have had 100% success using this method, and other than adding rock phosphate, my own compost, or bone meal or a little epsom salts for certain plants, there is no need to fertilize..the alfalfa is nitrogen rich and filled with minerals.

9/7/2018 2:34:49 PM

I just moved to the mountains of Washington from Florida and although I've bought many copies of Ruth Stout's books over the years, unfortunately, they are still in storage in Florida. There are garden beds laid out that I hope to plant if I can figure out what will grow well here and how to keep the chickens, turkeys, deer, and other critters from destroying. So much to learn and so many varieties of every veggie known to man! All I've done is look at a portion of one seed catalog and I'm already overwhelmed.

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