Meet Real Free-Range Eggs

A recent MOTHER EARTH NEWS study found that compared to conventional American eggs, real free-range eggs have less cholesterol and saturated fat, plus more vitamins A and E, beta carotene and polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids.

Rancho Cappuccino; Lawrence, Kan.

Rancho Cappuccino; Lawrence, Kan.

Photo by Bryan Welch

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The new results are in: Free-range eggs from hens allowed to peck on pasture are a heck of a lot better than those from chickens raised in cages!

Free-Range Eggs

Most of the eggs currently sold in supermarkets are nutritionally inferior to eggs produced by hens raised on pasture. That’s the conclusion we have reached following completion of the 2007 Mother Earth News egg testing project. Our testing has found that, compared to official U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient data for commercial eggs, eggs from hens raised on pasture may contain:

• 1/3 less cholesterol
• 1/4 less saturated fat
• 2/3 more vitamin A
• 2 times more omega-3 fatty acids
• 3 times more vitamin E
• 7 times more beta carotene

These amazing results come from 14 flocks around the country that range freely on pasture or are housed in moveable pens that are rotated frequently to maximize access to fresh pasture and protect the birds from predators. We had six eggs from each of the 14 pastured flocks tested by an accredited laboratory in Portland, Ore. The chart at the end of this article shows the average nutrient content of the samples, compared with the official egg nutrient data from the USDA for “conventional” (i.e. from confined hens) eggs. The chart lists the individual results from each flock.

The 2007 results are similar to those from 2005, when we tested eggs from four flocks all managed as truly free range. But our tests are not the first to show that pastured eggs are more nutritious — see “Mounting Evidence” below for a summary of six studies that all indicated that pastured eggs are richer in nutrients than typical supermarket eggs.

We think these dramatically differing nutrient levels are most likely the result of the different diets of birds that produce these two types of eggs. True free-range birds eat a chicken’s natural diet — all kinds of seeds, green plants, insects and worms, usually along with grain or laying mash. Factory farm birds never even see the outdoors, let alone get to forage for their natural diet. Instead they are fed the cheapest possible mixture of corn, soy and/or cottonseed meals, with all kinds of additives — see “The Caged Hen’s Diet” below.

The conventional egg industry wants very much to deny that free-range/pastured eggs are better than eggs from birds kept in crowded, inhumane indoor conditions. A statement on the American Egg Board’s website says “True free-range eggs are those produced by hens raised outdoors or that have daily access to the outdoors.”

Baloney. They’re trying to duck the issue by incorrectly defining “true free-range.” And the USDA isn’t helping consumers learn the truth, either: “Allowed access to the outside” is how the USDA defines “free-range.” This inadequate definition means that producers can, and do, label their eggs as “free-range” even if all they do is leave little doors open on their giant sheds, regardless of whether the birds ever learn to go outside, and regardless of whether there is good pasture or just bare dirt or concrete outside those doors!

Both organizations need to come clean. True free-range eggs are those from hens that range outdoors on pasture, which means they can do what’s natural — forage for all manner of green plants and insects.

The Egg Board statement goes on to say: “The nutrient content of eggs is not affected by whether hens are raised free-range or in floor or cage operations.”

Again, that is hogwash. They think they can simply ignore the growing body of evidence that clearly shows that eggs are superior when the hens are allowed to eat their natural diet. Or maybe they think it’s OK to mislead the public to protect egg producers’ bottom line.

After we published our first report about the high nutrient levels in pastured eggs, the Egg Nutrition Council questioned our “suggestion” that pastured eggs were better in their Aug. 8, 2005, newsletter:

“Barring special diets or breeds, egg nutrients are most likely similar for egg-laying hens, no matter how they are raised.” There’s that double-speak, again: “Barring special diets . . . ” Since when are diets not a part of how chickens are raised? Come on, people, we’ve cited six studies (see "Mounting Evidence", below) showing that pastured eggs are better. The best you can say is “most likely” this evidence is wrong? Cite some science to support your assertions! The U.S. Poultry and Egg Association offers the same misleading statement on its website:

“What are free-range eggs? Free-range eggs are from hens that live outdoors or have access to the outdoors. The nutrient content of eggs from free-range hens is the same as those from hens housed in production facilities with cages.”

It’s amazing what a group can do with a $20 million annual budget. That’s what factory-farm egg producers pay to fund the AEB each year to convince the public to keep buying their eggs, which we now believe are substandard.

The Egg Board’s misleading claims about free-range/pastured eggs pervade the Internet, even though the Board has been aware of the evidence about the nutrient differences at least since our 2005 report. We found virtually the same (unsubstantiated) claim denying any difference in nutrient content on Web sites of the American Council on Science and Health (an industry-funded nonprofit), the Iowa Egg Council, the Georgia Egg Commission, the Alberta (Canada) Egg Producers, Hormel Foods, CalMaine Foods and NuCal Foods (“the largest distributor of shell eggs in the Western United States”).

But the most ridiculous online comments turned up at, a site maintained by a “food trends consultant.” It says:

“FREE RANGE: Probably the most misunderstood of all claims, it’s important to note that hens basically stay near their food, water and nests, and the idea of a happy-go-lucky bird scampering across a field is far from the natural way of life. The claim only means that the hens have access to the outdoors, not that they avail themselves of the opportunity. The hens produce fewer eggs so they are more expensive; higher product costs add to the price of the eggs. The nutrient content is the same as other eggs.”

If you’ve ever been around chickens, you know that whoever wrote that hasn’t. Chickens will spend almost their entire day ranging around a property scratching and searching for food. Even as tiny chicks, they are naturally curious and will begin eating grass and pecking curiously at any insects or even specks on the walls of their brooder box. “Scampering across a field,” looking for food, is precisely their natural way of life.

Supermarket Guru did get one thing right, though. Free-range/pastured eggs are likely to be more expensive because production costs are higher. As usual, you get what you pay for. If you buy the cheapest supermarket eggs, you are not only missing out on the valuable nutrients eggs should and can contain, you are also supporting an industrial production system that treats animals cruelly and makes more sustainable, small-scale egg production difficult.

You can raise pastured chickens easily right in your back yard — see our recent articles about how to do it here. Or you can find pastured eggs at local farmstands and farmers markets, or sometimes at the supermarket. Tell the store manager you want eggs from pastured hens, and encourage the manager to contact local producers. To find pastured producers near you, check out or

Why Pastured Eggs are the Best

"Customers get our eggs from the farm where they’re laid, so they see exactly how the hens live: in healthy, humane conditions." — Mark and Melissa Moeller, Misty Meadows Farm.

"Your egg testing is real culture-changing stuff, and I applaud Mother Earth News in courageously moving forward with it." — Joel Salatin, Polyface Farm.

"My best marketing tool is my customers, who regularly tell people that these are the best eggs they’ve ever had and worth every penny." — Patryk Battle, Sparkling Earth Farm.

"We have many loyal customers who stand in line 30 minutes before the market opens to get our eggs." — George & Eiko Vojkovich, Skagit River Ranch.

"We support Shady Grove Farm because it’s important to keep our local organic farmers thriving. Best of all, the eggs taste better, are better for you, and add amazing flavor (and color!) to our food." — Rachel Rose, restaurateur.

"We preach to everyone that will listen: Don’t buy animal products unless you can see the way they’re raised. If everyone bought that way, there wouldn’t be industrial farms, and the small farmer could prosper again." — Bill and Sharon Moreton, Spring Mountain Farms.

"We sell our eggs to several restaurant chefs — they’ll pay three or more times the price for pastured eggs over commercial." — David Smith, Springfield Farm.

"I’m in this for the joy chickens bring and healthful eggs, not profit. Sitting on the porch watching the ladies in the yard is better than any therapy, so they’re worth at least $100 an hour to me." — Suzan Touchette, Windy Island Acres.

"I’m so fortunate to get fresh eggs from heirloom hens that spend their days eating bugs, grass and weeds. Their eggs are the most flavorful I’ve ever eaten! Plus, I appreciate knowing how fresh they are." — Heidi Hunt, addicted to Red Stuga eggs.

"It’s a real pleasure to return to eggs that have quality of taste, texture and looks. Now that I get the added benefit of less cholesterol and all the nutrition, I am simply delighted." — Danny G. Langdon, Misty Meadows maniac.

The Caged Hen’s Diet

Here’s the ingredients list from “16 percent Layer Crumbles,” a feed designed for hens raised in confinement: “Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain Byproducts, Roughage Products, Forage Products [in other words, could contain pretty much anything! — MOTHER], Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Manadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Methionine Supplement, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Manganous Oxide, Ferrous Sulfate, Copper Chloride, Zinc Oxide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Sodium Selenite.”

Mounting Evidence for Free-Range Eggs

• In 1974, the British Journal of Nutrition found that pastured eggs had 50 percent more folic acid and 70 percent more vitamin B12 than eggs from factory farm hens.

• In 1988, Artemis Simopoulos, co-author of The Omega Diet, found pastured eggs in Greece contained 13 times more omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than U.S. commercial eggs.

• A 1998 study in Animal Feed Science and Technology found that pastured eggs had higher omega-3s and vitamin E than eggs from caged hens.

• A 1999 study by Barb Gorski at Pennsylvania State University found that eggs from pastured birds had 10 percent less fat, 34 percent less cholesterol, 40 percent more vitamin A, and four times the omega-3s compared to the standard USDA data. Her study also tested pastured chicken meat, and found it to have 21 percent less fat, 30 percent less saturated fat and 50 percent more vitamin A than the USDA standard.

• In 2003, Heather Karsten at Pennsylvania State University compared eggs from two groups of Hy-Line variety hens, with one kept in standard crowded factory farm conditions and the other on mixed grass and legume pasture. The eggs had similar levels of fat and cholesterol, but the pastured eggs had three times more omega-3s, 220 percent more vitamin E and 62 percent more vitamin A than eggs from caged hens.

• The 2005 study MOTHER EARTH NEWS conducted of four heritage-breed pastured flocks in Kansas found that pastured eggs had roughly half the cholesterol, 50 percent more vitamin E, and three times more beta carotene.

• The 2007 results from 14 producers are shown here.

Cheryl Long is the editor in chief of MOTHER EARTH NEWS magazine, and a leading advocate for more sustainable lifestyles. She leads a team of editors which produces high quality content that has resulted in MOTHER EARTH NEWS being rated as one North America’s favorite magazines. Long lives on an 8-acre homestead near Topeka, Kan., powered in part by solar panels, where she manages a large organic garden and a small flock of heritage chickens. Prior to taking the helm at MOTHER EARTH NEWS, she was an editor at Organic Gardening magazine for 10 years. Connect with her on .

9/19/2015 4:54:55 PM

fabulistic , I like eggs more than any other food Every morning I should eat 10 to 12 eggs !!!!! _________________

8/25/2014 11:50:59 AM

Well when I open the run up each morning my hens take off across our acre of back yard and really seem to enjoy the hunting and pecking.... They go back and get drinks and lay eggs but all of my chickens really enjoy the free range. And my family and neighbors like the taste of the eggs they produce.

7/21/2014 11:37:00 PM

Where can I buy eggs like these today?

7/21/2014 11:23:00 PM

what's the difference between these eggs and the ordinary eggs in grocery stores?

7/15/2014 12:06:37 AM

This is just perfect for this season.

7/14/2014 11:55:20 PM

Is there any place here in Florida where I can buy this type of eggs?

7/14/2014 11:48:50 PM

Where was the picture taken by the way?

7/14/2014 11:42:54 PM

nice thoughts about free-range eggs here. thanks for the post.

5/10/2014 7:07:30 AM wow this good but ,I like your post and good pics may be any peoples not like because defrent mind all poeple ,

7/2/2013 12:29:09 PM

We wrote this article in 2007 and do not have access now to the materials we used.  Most of the articles we listed in the "Mounting Evidence" sidebar should be available online if you paste our sentences into Google. And at least one citation has been posted in the comments below. --Mother

7/1/2013 7:31:52 PM

can you all provide citations for or links to the articles in the "mounting evidence" section? i'd like to see the methods and statistical analyses the original researchers used. thanks!

robyn tipling
2/4/2013 9:20:34 PM

I would like to thank you for the information on nutrition from pasture eggs versus supposed free chooks arefree range in theback yard and the taste and colour is superb compared to shop bought eggs...very popular with neighbours!!!! There is nothing more relaxing than starting a day with a cuppa on the back verandah and watching my girls feed that also includes my ducks..great wat to start the day..each of them are named and each have their own personalities..they are a joy!!!

anne seccombe
12/16/2012 11:48:29 AM

The "1999 study by Barb Gorski of Pennsylvania State University" is frequently mentioned, however, I can't find the actual article. Any chance you could provide a proper citation for it? many thanks, Anne

becky hoppe
11/10/2012 4:41:02 AM

We have a small pasture for our chickens, they are happier this way. I watch them run around, chase each other, find prime bug and greens spots. One of their favorite greens is clover. It has to be good for them, I ran out of eggs one time, after selling them all off mistakenly leaving us with none. So had to crawl into the store and get a dozen. Cracked those eggs and the yolks were just a light yellow. Next day did a side by side comparrison to one of our fresh laid eggs and our yolks were a vivid orange, not even yellow compared to store bought. I cannot make a "white" cake with them, they turn it yellow! The taste alone tells us all we need to know, they taste better, but we know they are much better for us, and we are putting that many less caged birds out of the equation.

ronda flocke
10/19/2012 2:28:48 PM

It's typical for birds to slow down at this age. Optimum laying period is the time b/w 6 mos and 1.5 years. We change our water out every morning and evening. I've heard of chickens ceasing to lay on a high-corn diet. Check out the nutritional content of your feed. We feed a layer feed and high-quality scratch, about 1/2 and 1/2. They get really grouchy and slow down significantly if we run out of scratch and try to get by on layer feed alone until we make it to the feed store, so we learned our lesson and try not to ever let that happen.

gina koenig
10/18/2012 3:40:58 AM

We have 9-2 1/2 yr old chickens in our backyard in a coop, although we try to let them out a couple of days per week. Aside from layered feed, we do give them bread and wild bird seed. They stopped laying, so we have just been giving layered feed thinking they were not getting their nutrition. What do you think is wrong, or is this normal and they are finished laying? Also, how often should we change their water?

8/22/2012 4:17:26 PM

goodmorning freerangers egg lovers and to all you egg farmers thank you for a good egg aka./freerange keep sending egg to market we well be looking for them firsttimer ole in canada

angelo bruno
9/18/2011 12:05:19 AM Seems like the site above agrees with your findings since you wrote this article in 2007.

7/11/2011 5:32:31 PM

For those in need of some peer reviewed bolstering of this article: H.D. Karsten, P.H. Patterson, R. Stout and G. Crews (2010). Vitamins A, E and fatty acid composition of the eggs of caged hens and pastured hens. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25, pp 45-54. Accepted for peer-reviewed publication Oct 8, 2009.

farmer's lil wife
12/22/2010 7:42:34 PM

Does anyone know where you would send eggs to have the nutrition content verified like Mother did for the article? I also have pastured poultry and would like to be able to list the nutritional content of the actual eggs produced on our farm.

ken berry
12/18/2010 9:11:08 AM

Very good article! I just cited it in an article I have posted here: Enjoy those eggs!

bob broyles_1
10/21/2010 1:10:49 PM

Another point... folks often write that the act of foraging burns more energy than the birds gain in the process, so you have to supplement their diet with prepared feed. Our newly hatched chicks do receive an organic chick starter, but once they are feathered out enough to stay warm, they are out to pasture with only a once-daily coffee-can of organic grain per 50 birds to keep them tame. Our hens often sneak out and hatch a clutch on their own, and raise the chicks to adult size just fine. They occasionally mooch some of the grain mentioned above, but for the most part, it’s just invertebrates, weed seeds and vegetation.

bob broyles_1
10/21/2010 12:58:44 PM

Fourteen years ago, we were inundated by grasshoppers on our farm. Everywhere we walked, we would literally kick up dozens with each step! The neighbors use conventional agriculture, while we are organic. The grasshoppers, of course, preferred our place because we do not spray. We went to the local swap meet and brought home turkeys, guineas, and chickens. When we brought them home, we were going to wait a while to release them, but they were stretching their necks through the cages trying to get at the grasshoppers, so we turned them loose. Man, they went crazy chasing down all the grasshoppers! It took them an entire summer to accomplish their feat, but they eventually ate most of the 'hoppers. We have had relatively few hoppers ever since, but unfortunately, the poultry also eat the good guys, like preying mantis and spiders.

9/12/2009 2:12:08 PM

Just wanted to let you know that the graphic visually representing the merits of range fed chickens actually has a mathematical error--however, this is actually one that just makes the range-fed chickens look EVEN better when corrected. It says that USDA eggs have 0.22g of the Omega-3 fatty acids and range-fed have 0.66g. The graphic says that this is 2x more omega 3s, but it's actually THREE times more. And just as an FYI, omega-3 fatty acids are about the best thing that "modern medicine" has to reduce very high triglycerides (google Lovasa for the medicine). Glad to know that raising my own poultry will help me keep more of this in my diet. :)

nano's chicks
1/27/2009 11:55:08 PM

I'd like to comment on bugs. We have always had all kinds of bugs in and around our house. We bought the granddaughters baby chicks this year at a grand opening of a new farm store. This is the 1st year we had barely noticed any bugs of any type and that includes spiders that always hang from our oak trees. My sons have complained for years about them, saying we need to spray or something. Well, turned out the chickens were the only something we needed. No grasshoppers, spiders, earwigs, crickets and even my small frogs. I have to be very careful about the frogs. I usually water the yard after dark so the chicks are roosting and the frogs can try and get flying bugs. This is the best way for anyone to control the pests around their homes. Talk about green. Sincerely, Nano in Texas

katy skinner
1/26/2009 12:50:16 PM

I agree with the poster called "Avian" above. -Katy Skinner (

katy skinner
1/26/2009 12:48:54 PM

I author the website . . .

1/7/2009 4:10:41 PM

I have chickens, and they cover a lot of ground everyday. While I do give them a commercial feed as a suppliment, they eat very little of it per day. So I wold venture that TRUE free- range birds might actually cost LESS since not only do they eat very little feed, they take very little maintenence since they do the majority of their bowel movements spread out over many acres, and I don't need artificial light or heat on them. They know what dark means - it is time to head back home to go to bed. And here is the final rebel thing I do ... I ( heaven forbid) let a HEN set, hatch, brood, and raise a clutch whenever she has a mind to. No incubator, no brooder, the chicks never display any of the vices well - known in brooder raised birds like pecking and even killing each other. The statement : "Finally, there's nothing particularly natural about birds running around in a field hunting bugs and forage as you state they're doing. " Is about the dumbest thing I have ever read!

mark _1
10/17/2008 11:26:40 AM

I remember the day I told my wife, "You finally learned how to cook scrambled eggs like my grandmother." She laughed and said, "Those are the eggs we got from the Kenyon's farm. The chickens are healthier because they get sunshine and fresh air and grasshoppers, and the eggs are just better. Everybody knows farm eggs are better than store eggs." Maybe you need to find a grant to fund a multi-million dollar double-blind, peer-reviewed study to satisfy the skeptics. In the meantime each of us is equipped with a miniature lab to test food quality--it's called the olfactory-gustatory-visual system. The rich color of the egg yolks and and superior taste tells us that eggs from pastured hens are better.

1/1/2008 1:12:56 PM


12/28/2007 9:24:44 AM

What is the shelf life of all eggs? Thank You, Steve.

11/9/2007 7:03:56 AM

Thank you for the information.

10/22/2007 9:16:47 PM

Four months ago, my husband and I bought 6 Barred Plymouth Rock chicks because we wanted laying hens from a heritage breed that would provide wholesome eggs for our diet. We lost one due to a really dumb mishap but the remaining 5 are doing great! Since my husband and I both work, we have a set up that seems to be working okay. He raises rabbits and built a sturdy hutch for them in which their cages are suspended from the roof (yes, these guys are in cages because they're show rabbits). Their wasted food & excrement is channeled out but some drops down below. My husband built the chicken coop with attached pen right next to the rabbit hutch and created a door to let the chickens roam around underneath the rabbit cages. This way, they're all safe from predators, and the chickens have lots of territory to cover. I wasn't sure if this was a good idea though, but if we had a regular farm, the chickens would probably be scratching in all the cow patties and other stuff. Anyway, I have a question about OTHER food. The place where I bought the chicks recommended that I feed them "starter/growth" food for the first 8 months of their life. This stuff is medicated (which I was told was necessary), but I was also told that once they start laying, we should switch them to "layer" food and throw out the first batch of eggs from each hen to cycle out the medication. Hmmm. Being a relative "newbie" to raising my own chickens, this all sounds rather weird. I actually grew up on a farm but most of the chickens & livestock had been sold by the time I was a pre-teen so I really don't know what to feed my "girls". It seems like everyone I've talked to, and every website, has a different recommendation! I've been dutifully purchasing the recommended "starter/growth" crumbles but recently started throwing in a few handfuls of cracked corn and other seed just to see if they'd

brigid skelton
10/20/2007 11:35:22 PM

I agree with Michael. Hens that I know, have commercial food and vegetable scraps, and water available all day, but they spend their time eating fresh grass, and clover, and digging for grubs in the lawn. Chickens are programmed to forage, to scratch, to dust-bathe, to interact and socialize. They don't just stand by the feeder all day. BTW, I agree the study could have been more scientific. Double blind and randomized???

10/20/2007 8:19:59 AM

I own 6 free range chickens than have a roost with no door and they regularly range over our 40 acre property. the eggs (on average 4 per day)that they produce are twice the size of large super market eggs and the yoke is orange not yellow, they taste much better and bind better in cakes etc: I feel that nothing deserves to live in a cage let alone an animal that provides such a tasty food source.

10/19/2007 10:02:39 PM

A response to Avian Biology.... I agree with a number of posters regarding the testing of non-free-range birds as well - an obvious ommission and left the testers wide open to criticism. I won't dare buy into the argument and counter argument and counter-counter-argument about testing methods etc - that's clearly an endless treadmill with the results depending on whichever group is arguing. But regarding the last comment's final para about birds not wanting to forage if food is supplied..... This is clearly nonsense by my own experience and that of numerous other's I know. I have a bunch of chooks (that's Aussie chickens) which have commercial food available at all times (as well as copious volumes of vege scraps, hot bran mash and other goodies), and who also have a very large area to 'free-range' in (a couple of acres). They indeed eat the food provided (which is in a feeder available in their pen at all times) - but then spend the rest of the day ranging far from their pen, pecking, foraging, etc, only returning to their pen to lay, or finally to roost in the evening. You state that 'If their food is provided for them, they can (and will) stay by it and eat until they are satiated". This is not my experience, nor the experience of numerous locals as well, who have similar setups to me. Is it a scientific survey?... well hardly. But I get 9.5 oversize eggs per day from 10 chooks and my customers fight each other to get my eggs, saying they're the best, tastiest eggs they can get hold of. Yes, I'm sure it's true that in a commercial sense this is not the way to go (though I do make more money than I spend) - I wouldn't be able to run a commercial egg business this way. But of course that's not what the argument is about is it? Stick the chickens in cages - that's clearly the best way to make money, otherwise it wouldn't be done. For me - blow the science - I'll let my

10/19/2007 4:11:27 PM

I swear that had paragraphs just a moment ago. So sorry.

10/19/2007 4:09:54 PM

Though you'll probably disregard these comments as Poultry Industry Propaganda, I figured I might as well speak up. Your science, as has been suggested, is deeply flawed. First, you have no actual tangible basis of comparison between the free-range and commercial layers. Never rely on someone else's figures when you can do it yourself! Then, there's no differentiation between nutritional value of commercial free-range and the purported true free-range birds. There is no indication of what a free-range bird is actually eating-- "bugs, worms, and grass" doesn't really indicate the caloric intake, nutritional value, digestibility, etc. You can't tell if all the eggs were from one bird or a series of birds. There is no indication of bird health, condition of eggs, size and comparisons between average free-range birds and their eggs and the commercial counterparts... do I really need to go on? To sum up: The science is BAD. I'm not saying it's not an interesting and potentially informative study. It would be, but you'd have to actually run it like a scientific study. Further, the egg industry is not incorrect in saying that the composition of an egg is similar between breeds. The composition of an egg necessarily cannot deviate out of certain boundaries, because it's being produced to sustain embryonic development. Without all those nutrients, there would be no potential for growth, and the follicle would not develop. No yolk is formed, so there would be no egg. Beyond this, the study was conducted with a variety of breeds that are different than those used in the egg industry (white leghorns). The egg board states that breed differences may cause nutritional differences. Doesn't really sound like "double-speak" to me. Finally, there's nothing particularly natural about birds running around in a field hunting bugs and forage as you state they're doing. Birds peck, hunt, and s

10/19/2007 2:16:20 PM

I teach statistics, this is bad science. A statement such as; "this may happen" contains no information that you can use to make informed decisions. A statistical survey should allow you the ability to say with some measurable certainty whether or not something is likely to be true. For example, "we are 95% confident that smoking causes cancer." I eat free range eggs. I like the fact that the chickens get to play with each other. As for the health factors: I say, everything in moderation.

10/19/2007 10:35:44 AM

My question is: so how can you find out which eggs are actually free range eggs, if most only have the option of going outside? I'm vegan because I don't know how to get any, but I have no moral qualms about actual, true free range eggs, because it doesn't harm the animal. I also think testing conventional eggs would have been a good idea, as well--the nutrients might have even been lower than what the USDA states; I wouldn't have been surprised.

10/19/2007 10:04:58 AM

Given your description of the USDA's qualification of free range, are you suggesting that free range eggs are likely not "true" free range? If this is the case, why are you advocating paying the extra dollar? Or did I misread?

10/19/2007 8:26:29 AM

Very interesting article. We have been eating (true) free range eggs for some time now. One question with regards to your methodology: Why did you not go the extra step and do nutritional analyses on "conventional" eggs? I would think that this would be more telling of the true difference and lend more credibility to your claims. Thanks.

10/19/2007 7:43:05 AM

peer reviewed evidence please? Without this no-one can decide whether your statements are correct, I would have no problem accepting this if the original sources for the information presented were referenced.

10/19/2007 6:53:28 AM

How could you go to all the effort to test 14 flocks of range free chickens and not do the same for caged chickens and just accept the USDA numbers as gospel? Smells more like propaganda than good science.

10/17/2007 4:34:04 PM

We have six hens in our backyard and learned much from Joel Salatin's book "Pastured Poultry Profits," which I highly recommend. In addition to providing us a steady supply of fresh eggs, our hens are excellent little gardeners (they bust up the sod, fertilize the ground, eat weed seeds, and help reduce insect populations) and wonderful, low-maintenance pets.

9/26/2007 11:45:36 AM

Im not sure if you got the first message, please tell me which of these farms are certified organic, thanks Carolyn

9/26/2007 11:42:59 AM

Please tell me which of these farms are certified organic. Thanks Carolyn