Determining Chicken Egg Quality: All You Need to Know

From shell strength to yolk color to the egg grading system, learn the basic factors of egg quality.

  • Cover
    This complete chicken guide covers breeds, care, feeding, facilities, egg quality and more.
  • Egg chart
    An egg is much more than a yolk, white and shell. This diagram shows the intricacies of a chicken egg, which will help you determine egg quality.
  • Chicken and eggs
    Use the criteria in this article to find out whether that basket of eggs you just collected from the henhouse are top quality.

  • Cover
  • Egg chart
  • Chicken and eggs

The following is an excerpt from Storey’s Guide to Raising Chickens by Gail Damerow (Storey Publishing, 2010). This new edition of a best-selling classic will tell you everything you need to know about raising your own backyard flock. 

Grading Eggs

Commercial chicken eggs are sorted — according to exterior and interior quality — into three grades established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): AA, A and B. For all grades, the shell must be intact. Nutritionally, all grades are the same.

Grades AA and A eggs are nearly identical, the main difference being that Grade A eggs are slightly older than Grade AA eggs. Grade AA eggs therefore have firmer, thicker whites that hold the yolks up high and round, whereas the white of a Grade A egg is “reasonably firm,” meaning it spreads a little farther when you break the egg into a frying pan. Grade A are the eggs you are most likely to see at a grocery store. Both grades are suitable for frying, poaching and other dishes in which appearance is important.

Grade B eggs have stained or abnormal shells, minor blood or meat spots and other trivial defects. They are used in the food industry to make liquid, frozen and powdered egg products, so you are unlikely to find them at a grocery store. Homegrown Grade B eggs are best used for scrambling, baking and similar recipes in which the eggs are stirred.

Any egg that does not fit into one of these three categories is unfit for human use and consumption. Although you needn’t worry about grading your homegrown eggs, the USDA grading system offers a guideline for assessing the quality of the eggs your hens produce.

Exterior Egg Quality

Exterior quality refers to a shell’s appearance, cleanliness and strength. Appearance is important because the shell is the first thing you notice about an egg. Cleanliness is important because the shell is the egg’s first defense against bacterial contamination; the cleaner the shell, the easier it can do its job. Strength influences the egg’s ability to remain intact until you’re ready to use it. The shell accounts for about 12 percent of the weight of a large egg. It is made up of three layers:

5/8/2010 6:34:23 PM

Thanks Bob, I'll give that a try :)

4/30/2010 7:22:16 PM

Jason, If a egg sinks in a cup of water you can assume it is safe to eat. But if the egg floats it has to much air in it then you should discard it cause it has either started to develop a chick (if you have a rooster) or it has taken in air from sitting too long. Good Luck!

4/30/2010 2:45:37 AM

Well, I read the article. I still don't know how to 'determine' egg quality, ie: How to tell whether an egg should not be eaten due to poor quality. Anybody else?



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