The Sun Blest Passive Solar House

This ingenious passive solar house is "Home, Warm Home" even in -15° weather!

| November/December 1981

  • 072 passive solar house
    The completed passive solar house. Note the shade provided by the protruding lattice.
  • 072 passive solar house - diagram, bedroom
    Diagram shows cross section of the solar windows/insulation combination in relation to the bedrooms.
  • 072 passive solar house - diagram, cross section
    Diagram shows the parts of the house and their role in facilitating air convection.

  • 072 passive solar house
  • 072 passive solar house - diagram, bedroom
  • 072 passive solar house - diagram, cross section

My wife and I had several goals in mind when we set out to design and build our own home. We hoped to create an energy-conserving farmhouse that used both conventional building supplies and readily available native materials. Furthermore, we wanted our abode to employ only the renewable energy sources of sunlight and firewood for heating, yet at the same time keep temperature fluctuations to a minimum.

Well, after a lot of planning, replanning, and trial-and-error building, our "Sun Blest" passive solar house is complete and is a grand success. The northern New Mexico house (we live three miles west of Taos) has kept us warm during the -15°F cold spells that annually hit our farming area and helps cool our family during the hot days of summer as well!

Blest Be the Sun That Shines

The entire second floor of our long and lean (69' 7" X 23' 3") dwelling is covered by a huge south-facing window. In the center of the house, any light passing through this double-layered Kalwall Sunlite-reinforced polyester glazing goes directly to the second-floor balcony and below—through a large open space—to our living-room/greenhouse area. At both ends of the building, however, admitted sunshine hits a series of simple solar collectors (constructed of insulated sheet steel that has been covered with 3M's Nextel Velvet Coating 101-C10), which are separated from the two upstairs bedrooms by wooden inner walls.

All the sun-warmed air—including that heated in the home's center space and by our seven 4' X 8' collectors—rises, by convection, to the home's attic. From there, it's pulled down to the ground floor by a four-speed blower, and routed through ductwork either to the rock heat-storage bin constructed beneath the ground floor or—if we need immediate warming—through an open subfloor to the entire perimeter of the home. Either way, the air eventually circulates back to the attic by way of the inside walls of the house.

The blower can easily route the air in a complete circuit several times in one hour, but—since the below-floor passageways distribute the moving air all around the inside borders of the house—we never notice the "spread thin" breeze. In addition, as the rising currents pass along our ground-floor adobe walls, the excellent thermal energy storage material absorbs more of the circulating heat and gradually radiates the warmth into the living area. We further improved the heat-storing capabilities of our first-floor walls by putting inch-thick urethane insulation between the inner and outer adobe brick layers.

Outside the front of the house, we erected a high "slattice" of 2 X 6 lumber. The cross sections of this wooden gridwork were angled so as to block out summer sunlight while leaving openings for snow—which otherwise might accumulate and eventually break the overhang—to fall through. We also added some short pieces of right-angled metal on the underside of the slattice. These "drip lips" interrupt the flow of rain or melted snow on the overhang and keep the runoff from pouring onto the house.

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