How to Build an A-Frame

Whether you’re looking to build a rustic retreat or the off-grid home you’ve long dreamed about, the A-frame cabin offers a simple, incredibly sturdy and comparatively low-cost option.

| November 25, 2011

  • Cabins And Cottages
    Want to build a sophisticated cottage home, a low-key vacation cabin or anything in between? “Cabins & Cottages” has the know-how you need to get started confidently and finish beautifully. This detailed, color-illustrated guide pilots you through all of the pre-building considerations, such as assessing and preparing your site, and then lays out step-by-step instructions for fashioning four structures: a classic log cabin, an A-frame cabin, a cottage of prefab panels, and a house suspended on poles. You’ll also learn how to equip your new lodging with heat, running water and all of the other comforts of home.
    COVER: FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING
  • A-Frame House
    The simplicity of construction and comparatively low cost make the A-frame a popular choice for vacation cabins. Any style of foundation can serve as its base.
    FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING
  • A-Frame Rafters
    Butt the top ends of the rafters together and fasten the gussets to each side of the seam with wood glue and 1 3/4-inch No. 8 wood screws.
    FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING
  • Cutting A-Frame Joists And Rafters
    Remove the scrap board and replace it with a joist or rafter, marked to length. Align the mark with the kerf and cut the board.
    FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING
  • Assemble A-Frame
    Clamp the ends of two joists around the base of a rafter, aligning the ends and edges of the boards, and drill a 5/8-inch hole through the three layers.
    FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING
  • Build An A-Frame
    With a pair of helpers, lift and position the end triangle on the beam between the scabs. Plumb the triangle and brace it with two 2-by-4s nailed diagonally between the rafters and outer beams so the top of each brace is least 4 1/2 feet from the base of the rafters. Position and plumb the remaining triangles in the same way, bracing them with a 1-by-2 nailed to each side of the adjacent triangle.
    FOX CHAPEL PUBLISHING

  • Cabins And Cottages
  • A-Frame House
  • A-Frame Rafters
  • Cutting A-Frame Joists And Rafters
  • Assemble A-Frame
  • Build An A-Frame

The following is an excerpt from Cabins & Cottages (Fox Chapel Publishing, 2011). Ready to make the leap from sheds and chicken coops to larger-scale DIY projects? Or just looking to expand your repertoire of carpentry skills? Meet Cabins & Cottages, your comprehensive resource for building simple, affordable, permanent living spaces. From the woodworking and crafting pros at Fox Chapel Publishing, Cabins & Cottages leaves no know-how stone unturned, and it details how to design and build your structures to withstand some of the worst Mother Nature can dish out (heavy snow, flooding, high winds), making the book a worthy companion for any builder. This excerpt is from Chapter 3, “Four Simple Structures.” 

One of the sturdiest of all structures is the A-frame, whose skeleton consists simply of a row of triangles. The bases of the triangles are the joists that support the floor, and the sides are the rafters that hold the combined walls and roof. The simplicity of construction and comparatively low cost make it a popular choice for vacation cabins or an off-grid home. Any style of foundation can serve as its base.

Planning Your A-Frame

The most common shape is equilateral — joists and rafters are equal in length and set at angles of 60 degrees to each other. You can use different angles to modify the shape, however (see “Common Floor-to-Rafter Angles,” below). An A-frame can be built to almost any size simply by varying the number of triangles and their dimensions, but a cabin with a sleeping loft must have rafters at least 20 feet long to allow adequate headroom on both floors. For a small structure like the one described here, three people can lift the assembled triangles into place without the assistance of special equipment. A structure with rafters greater than 24 feet may prove too unwieldy for a crew of amateurs. Frame doors and windows in the end walls. For a large A-frame, plan a lot of windows to keep the interior from being too dark.

A-Frame Tools

  • Screwdriver
  • Circular saw
  • C-clamps
  • Electric drill
  • Hammer
  • Carpenter’s level
  • Carpenter’s square
  • Plumb bob
  • Wrench
  • Saber saw

A-Frame Materials

  • 1-by-2s, 2-by-4s
  • 2-by-6s, 2-by-8s
  • Pressure-treated 2-by-6s, 2-by-10s, 4-by-4s
  • Exterior-grade plywood (3/4-inch)
  • Wood glue
  • Common nails (2-inch, 2 1/2-inch, 3 1/2-inch)
  • Galvanized common nails (2 1/2-inch, 3-inch, 3 1/2-inch)
  • Ring-shank nails (2 1/2-inch)
  • Wood screws (1 3/4-inch No. 8)
  • Roofing materials
  • Carriage bolts (5/8-inch-by-6-inch; 1/2-inch-by-4-inch, 6-inch)
  • Lag screws (1/2-inch-by-4-inch)
  • Multipurpose and framing anchors and nails
  • Wooden ladder
  • Concrete mix

Anatomy of an A-Frame

This 20-foot-per-side equilateral A-frame rests on tripled 2-by-10 pressure-treated beams supported by masonry block piers. The triangles, spaced 24 inches apart, are formed of 2-by-8 rafters joined at the apexes with plywood gussets and sandwiched at the bottom by pairs of pressure-treated 2-by-6 joists. (A cabin larger than this structure would require correspondingly larger framing lumber.) At the end walls and under the sleeping loft, horizontal 2-by-6 collar beams are fastened between the rafters. The rafters of the end walls are doubled to provide a flush nailing surface for the exterior sheathing. The sleeping loft, reached by a ladder, is framed by a railing secured to posts and rafters. Knee walls along the sides of the cabin provide concealed storage areas. The deck rests on 2-by-6 joists set 16 inches apart. Posts for the railing are secured to the deck joists. The stairs are set on concrete footings and are attached to the deck with metal framing anchors. All exposed wood is pressure-treated lumber. An asphalt-shingle roof is shown.



Common Floor-to-Rafter Angles

(Rafter length, joist length, rafter/joist angle, rafter/rafter angle)

16 feet, 12 feet, 68 degrees, 22 degrees
16 feet, 14 feet, 64.1 degrees, 26 degrees
16 feet, 16 feet, 60 degrees, 30 degrees
20 feet, 12 feet, 72.5 degrees, 17.5 degrees
20 feet, 14 feet, 69.5 degrees, 20.5 degrees
20 feet, 16 feet, 66.4 degrees, 23.6 degrees
20 feet, 20 feet, 60 degrees, 30 degrees
 

Kevin
3/27/2018 5:28:53 PM

It would be or would have been more helpful to me to see an diagram of the basic shape accompanying the variation in size. For example, I see the list of rafter length @ 20' and joists length of 12' et cetera.....then to the right I would see the basic shape of the triangle - all the way down the list I would see a different shaped triangle. This would help me because on my property I can envision the 'A" Frame design, where it sits, approximately how tall the 'A' frame is.







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