Mother Earth News Fair
Our FAIRS bring living wisely to life with hands-on workshops in organic gardening, country skills, renewable energy and more.

How Can Permaculture Help You Thrive While Healing the Planet?

Global strikes and marches for the climate — national and international climate conferences — businesses around the world setting urgent goals for the coming decades. As the impacts of global warming grow undeniable, responses are ramping up around the world.

But are you wondering “what can I do to make a real difference, right here, today, for my loved ones, community, and coming generations?”

If so, join MOTHER EARTH NEWS FAIR as we partner with our friends at Verge Permaculture as they present the Global Permaculture Summit: Hope, Knowledge, and a Plan on October 15, 16, and 17, 2021. Three free days of inspiration, information, and strategies to transform your life, your property, your community, and the planet!

Featuring 16 permaculture experts — both internationally beloved stars and visionary new practitioners – this live online event offers real-world perspectives on the “What Is,” the “Why,” and the “How to” questions that often baffle newcomers.

The event is hosted by past MOTHER EARTH NEWS speaker Rob Avis and the faculty of Verge’s internationally-recognized Permaculture Design Certificate program. They will be hosting guest speakers including:

  • Graham Bell, creator of a 25-year-old forest garden in Scotland, former editor of Permaculture News, and author of The Permaculture Way: Practical Steps to Create a Self-Sustaining World,
  • Rhamis Kent, world renowned specialist in permaculture, environmentalism, and applied Islamic ethics, heading the Neighborly Needs food outreach of Seattle’s Islamic cultural education organization Wasat,
  • Rosemary Morrow, international educator bringing permaculture to farmers and villagers in war-torn nations such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Uganda, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and Kurdistan,
  • Mark Krawczyk, permaculture farmer/educator/entrepreneur, founder of Keyline Vermont,
  • Andrew Millison, landscape designer and educational film producer traveling internationally to document permaculture-based food and water systems,
  • And many more!

Whether you’ve been wondering what permaculture is, or whether you’ve learned just enough to want to know more, this is the event to answer your questions and put your feet on the path of regenerative living.

Don’t risk missing this free summit — sign up and place it on your calendar today!

Aquaponic Fish Facts

Originally published May 2013

Aquaponic gardening is a fascinating way to grow two food products – vegetables and fish – together in an organic, symbiotic ecosystem. Beneficial microbes convert the fish waste into nutrients for the plants growing in a soil-less medium, and the plants return clean water to the fish.

Photo by Unsplash/tobysakata

Growing vegetables is a familiar process for most of us, especially if we were lucky enough growing up to help with the family garden every summer. But growing game fish for food is unfamiliar to most gardeners and can be somewhat intimidating. Even for experienced aquarium hobbyists, growing a plate-sized tilapia is a whole different animal. 

The key to growing fish for food, or any fish for that matter, in aquaponics is to consider what stresses the fish in a captive environment, and lessening, or eliminating, it. There are three categories of fish stress: physical, chemical, and biological.

Physical Stress – This includes all the environmental conditions that we control for our fish, the most important of which is temperature. All fish have a temperature range within which they will thrive, and a wider range within which they will survive. Fish are cold-blooded animals and do not have the ability to expend energy to maintain a constant internal body temperature like we do. They are completely at the mercy of the temperature of their surrounding water. If that water temperature goes outside of their optimal, or “thriving”, range they will eat less, or stop eating all together, and they become more susceptible to disease. That said, this is sometimes carefully employed as a technique called “cold banking” in order to slow down their growth rate. Cold banking is especially effective with fingerlings, when you are trying to stagger your fish production.

Aquaponic Fish
Photo by Silvia Bernstein

Another form of physical stress is sudden exposure to light and vibration. Fish are alarmed when we flip on a light switch and shock their world instantly from night to day. They will often start banging against the walls of the tank to escape the light. However, just like with cold banking, this sensitivity to light can be used to the aquaculturalist’s advantage by employing a technique called “phase shifting” whereby you trick the fish into thinking that it is spawning season (or not) by timing the amount of light they get during the day to mimic the season in which they normally spawn (or not).

And because they “hear” vibrations with their entire bodies, rapping against the wall of a tank feels like “yelling” to them and will also cause them undue stress.

Interestingly, another form of physical stress can be water velocity. Fish originating from still lake waters, like tilapia and perch, do not like much movement in their tank water. However, river fish, like trout, find it stressful not to have a current present in their tank.

Chemical Stress – This is mostly centered on maintaining the quality of the water Escalating ammonia and nitrite levels stress our fish. Nitrate levels, however, can go as high as 500 – 700 ppm without harming the fish. Maintaining a very low pH can also be stressful. And insufficient filtration of the solid waste and not enough dissolved oxygen are, not surprisingly, other forms of chemical stress.

Biological Stress – This last category refers to viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Just like in our world, most of these pathogens are often present but only fully express themselves when the right conditions occur. For fish, this likely means that some of the stress factors listed above must also be in place for biological threats to have an impact.

Catching an Aquaponic Fish
Photo by Silvia Bernstein

In aquaponics we have adopted the technique of “salting” fish or adding salt (sodium chloride) to the water to help them ward off disease. But this practice can be harmful to our plants because they may be sensitive to sodium. I’ve recently heard that it is the chlorine that helps the fish, and not the sodium. You can actually get the same effect with a more “plant-friendly” treatment such as potassium chloride or magnesium chloride.

So, just think like a fish and give them a relatively stress-free environment and they will live long in your aquaponics system and be delicious!

Aquaponic Gardening: Growing Fish and Vegetables Together

What if I told you that you could catch fish for dinner right in your own backyard? And if you did, what if I told you that right up until you caught those fish, they were growing the veggies for the rest of your dinner? Would you believe me? You should! This is all within reach using a new style of gardening called aquaponics.

Photo by Pixabay

Aquaponics is, at its most basic level, the marriage of aquaculture (raising fish) and hydroponics (growing plants in water and without soil) together in one integrated system. The fish waste provides organic food for the growing plants and the plants naturally filter the water in which the fish live. The third and fourth critical, yet invisible actors in this symbiotic world are the beneficial bacteria and composting red worms. Think of them as the Conversion Team. The beneficial bacteria exist on every moist surface of an aquaponic system. They convert the ammonia from the fish waste that is toxic to the fish and useless to the plants, first into nitrites and then into nitrates. The nitrates are relatively harmless to the fish and most importantly, they make terrific plant food. At the same time, the worms convert the solid waste and decaying plant matter in your aquaponic system into vermicompost. 

Aquaponics cycle 

Any type of fresh water fish works well in an aquaponic system. Tilapia is perhaps the most widely grown aquaponics fish, but aquaponic gardeners are also growing catfish, bluegill, trout, and even red-claw crayfish. Not interested in eating your fish? No problem! Koi, goldfish, and any decorative fresh-water fish you would purchase from a pet store work as well. In selecting your fish, however, you do want to pay attention to the temperature at which they both thrive and survive. Tilapia, for example, can survive down to temperatures in the low 60s, but they won’t thrive until they reach the mid 70’s. In contrast, trout will survive up to a maximum temperature of 65, but won’t thrive until their water is in the high 40s to low 50’s. 

Fish in net

There are also only a few limits to the types of plants you can grow in an aquaponics system. In fact, the only categories of plants that won’t thrive in an aquaponics system are plants like blueberries and azaleas that require an acidic environment to thrive. This is because aquaponic systems stay at a fairly neutral pH and therefore are a poor environment for plants requiring a pH of 4.0 – 5.0. 

So can all of this work in any climate? Absolutely…with some protection. A backyard greenhouse is ideal because not only can you create an ideal environment for your fish and plants, but the sunlight is free! As an added bonus, all the water in the fish tank, sump tank and grow beds creates thermal mass in your greenhouse which helps moderate temperature extremes. If you aren’t fortunate enough to have a backyard greenhouse, you can also grow inside. Many aquaponics have dedicated their garages and basements to their aquaponics systems!  

Aquaponics greenhouse

Here is the rest of the good news about aquaponics:

  • Aquaponic gardening enables home fish farming. You can now feel good about eating fish again.  
  • Aquaponic gardening uses 90% less water than soil-based gardening because the water is re-circulated and only that which the plants take up or evaporates is ever replaced. 
  • Aquaponic gardening results in two crops for one input (fish feed). 
  • Aquaponic gardening is four to six times as productive on a square foot basis as soil-based gardening. This is because with aquaponic gardening, you can pack plants about twice as densely as you can in soil and the plants grow two to three times as fast as they do in soil. 
  • Aquaponic systems only require a small amount of energy to run a pump and aeration for the fish. This energy can be provided through renewable methods. 
  • Aquaponics does not rely on the availability of good soil, so it can be set up anywhere, including inner city parking lots, abandoned warehouses, schools, restaurants, home basements and garages.  
  • Aquaponic gardening is free from weeds, watering and fertilizing concerns, and because it is done at a waist-high level, there is no back strain. 
  • Aquaponic gardening is necessarily organic. Natural fish waste provides all the food the plants need. Pesticides would be harmful to the fish so they are never used. Hormones, antibiotics, and other fish additives would be harmful to the plants so they are never used. And the result is every bit as flavorful as soil-based organic produce, with the added benefit of fresh fish for a safe, healthy source of protein. 
  • Aquaponics is completely scalable. The same basic principles apply to a system based on a 10 gallon aquarium and to a commercial operation. 

Aquaponic gardens are straight forward to set up and operate in your own backyard or home as long as you follow some basic guidelines. They can even be constructed using recycled materials, including old bathtubs and commercial containers used to ship liquid foodstuffs. Or purchase a system kit if you are not very DIY-inclined. The main point is to set up a system soon and become fish independent! There is simply no reason to rely on the fish counter anymore. 

Sylvia Bernstein has presented at our MOTHER EARTH NEWS FAIRS. 

Ginger Beer Recipe Remix

Who knew that making a soda so delicious was so darn easy?! This office experiment is our most rewarding yet. I mean, Marlin is cool with his aquaponic system and all, but I definitely don’t want to drink fish water. (See "Office Trials: Aquaponic System.") Our ginger beer is so refreshing, surprisingly effervescent and just plain awesome! So you’d like to know how to make it yourself, right? Well, I will gladly share the steps and recipe with you.

It all started with a little ginger bug. I wanted to make the ginger beer from scratch which means I had to make the yeast or “live” part of the soda. In researching the ginger bug I came across an article from 1981 by none other than MOTHER EARTH NEWS about how to create your own! Always a trusty source.

The following recipe and instructions were loosely based around the article, but I made a few changes to make it my own. You can do the same!

Start a Ginger Bug


  • 1-1/2 cups filtered water
  • 3 teaspoons finely chopped ginger root
  • 3 teaspoons organic raw sugar
  • 1 wide-mouth quart jar
  • Cheesecloth or coffee filter
  • Rubberband


Starting your ginger bug is ridiculously easy. Combine filtered water, finely chopped ginger root and organic sugar together in the quart jar. Stir until sugar has dissolved. Place cheesecloth or coffee filter over top of jar and secure with rubber band around mouth of jar. This allows the ginger bug to breathe, but keeps out any unwanted debris or creatures!

Daily, for about 7 to 8 days, add 2 teaspoons sugar and 2 teaspoons finely chopped ginger root and stir. You’ll want to agitate the ginger bug twice a day by stirring to be sure it stays activated. I made the mistake of letting it sit for a day or two without any stirring and it went dormant. It can easily be brought back to life with the sugar, ginger and a little agitation.

You’ll know your ginger bug is ready to use when it starts to fizz upon adding ingredients and stirring. It should take 7 to 8 days, but depending on temperature and other variables, it may take a bit longer. Because I let it go dormant, it took our ginger bug about two weeks to be ready for the ginger beer process.

How to Make Ginger Beer


  • Ginger bug
  • 3 lemons
  • 3/4 cup organic raw sugar
  • 1/2 gallon filtered water
  • 1/2 gallon container


After your ginger bug is all fizzed and ready to go, you’ll need a larger container to store your ginger beer in. In my case, there is a brewery located conveniently down the road from the office so I bought a growler to make my ginger beer in. It is a glass container and I wouldn’t use any other material for fear of leaching, but you must be very, very careful with glass. When the pressure of the beer builds up it creates perfect conditions for the glass container to blow up! You must release the pressure daily once the beer has been concocted.

To start, strain the ginger bug through the cheesecloth (I found this worked much better as a strainer than a coffee filter) into the container. Be sure to keep the solid parts of your ginger bug! I’ll let you know what to do with it in the following section. Next, juice the three lemons through the cheesecloth to prevent the seeds from going into the mix. Finally add the sugar and fill the rest of the container with filtered water. Be sure to stop about an inch from the top to allow fermenting to occur. Give it a shake, seal the top down tight and put it on the shelf. This should take about 4 to 7 days to be ready! 

As I said before, if you use a glass container be sure to release the pressure daily by opening the lid. You don’t want your bottle to bust everywhere. That would be one sticky mess! After 4 days here, we opened the bottle and it fizzed violently like a shaken soda bottle. It was obviously ready for consumption! Once you get this type of reaction from your ginger beer you’ll place it in the refrigerator to stop any fermentation. Once it’s cooled, it is ready to drink!

Back to the Bug


  • 1-1/2 cups filtered water
  • 2 teaspoons organic raw sugar
  • 2 teaspoons finely chopped ginger root


To keep your ginger bug alive be sure to keep the solid portion of your ginger bug after straining. Add filtered water, sugar and ginger root back into your quart jar and repeat the steps for keeping the ginger bug. The cycle will keep going as long as you keep your ginger bug active! 

To conclude, I had a great time with this process. It really is a fun soda to make and so easy. Every step was done at my desk… It doesn’t take a rocket scientist (trust me, I’m no chemist either!). If I can make it so can you and it takes no time at all. Over the course of the past three weeks I’ve grown oddly attached to my little ginger bug, and I’m sure to stir it twice a day to keep it kickin’. We’ll be making another batch of ginger beer after the holidays. It may become an office staple.

Stay tuned to the blog! We’ll be posting about our homemade (or office-made) apple cider vinegar, aquaponic system and we’ll keep you updated on our hydroponic system!

Check out the FAIR website and follow us on Facebook and Twitter for fun how-tos and FAIR updates! 

5 Questions for Shawna Coronado


What's the one thing that's a must in this world?

Without a doubt the one thing that's "a must" in this world is having relationships with our friends and family. Connecting with human beings is known to extend our lives and fill our soul with happiness. Sharing and caring with our loved ones is what life is all about.

What is the best purchase you've ever made?

Organic Mechanics Soil - it is an amazing soil filled with worm castings and one of my favorite things to add to my garden.

What brings you the greatest joy?

Food and family combined. I love spending time with my family over a good meal.

What's your favorite smell in the whole world?

Rose. It brings back memories of my grandmother.

What is the best advice you've ever received?

When I first began creating videos I struggled to have the videos look "perfect" every time. Then a social media expert I knew told me that I needed to "get over myself" and just get out there and do it no matter if I had messed up hair or clutter in the images. This advice applied to all aspects of my writing, photography, and media business, so I've jumped in and taken his advice to heart. Get over yourself and just enjoy the activity, job, or fun that you're having in order to enjoy life more.

Shawna Coronado is an author, columnist, blogger, photographer, media host, and brand ambassador in the realms of green lifestyle living, organic gardening, and low-cost cuisine who campaigns for social good. She is also an on-camera spokesperson and social media personality with more than 375,000 followers on her various social media venues and she maintains a YouTube channel with more than a million views. In 2015 she co-hosted the radio show “The Good Green Home Show” and appeared bi-weekly at her home garden as the FOX News Chicago “Gardening with Good Day” organic gardening expert. Coronado’s garden and eco-adventures have been featured in many media venues, including PBS television. Along with her green lifestyle initiatives, Coronado is concerned about promoting and teaching healthy living. She was diagnosed with severe spinal osteoarthritis, news that led her to change her lifestyle, lose weight, and consume a mostly anti-inflammatory diet. She educates audiences about beneficial diet, food, and health practices through her organic living media. She dreams that this will enable more people who suffer from similar conditions to be active. Her successful organic living photographs and stories have been shown both online and off in many international home and garden magazines and multiple books. For more on Shawna check out!

Points of Interest on the Salatin Family Farm


Although the MOTHER EARTH NEWS FAIR team is currently “hunkered down” in response to stay-at-home guidelines related to the COVID-19 pandemic, we are still planning to host the FAIR at Polyface Farm in July! One of the things we are most excited about for this unique event is the opportunity to highlight in-person several special facets that are critical to the successful operation of the farm. We are calling these areas “Points of Interest.” They will be on display ongoing throughout the two days, and we will schedule special gathering times around each one so that a Polyface representative can discuss how they are important to the fabric of the entire operation.

Points of Interest

Management-Intensive Grazing
At Polyface Farm, farmers move cows to a new paddock every day. That requires portable water, portable fencing, and portable shade. Those are the tools of the trade. The art is knowing how much area to allot, computing cow days, and giving adequate rest periods. On most farms, moving cows is a bit of an ordeal; at Polyface, a simple call brings them running. The result of this system is increased fertility, increased production, and a vegetative mosaic that stimulates pollinators and wildlife.

Hoop Houses
Most hoop houses are built for vegetable production, but at Polyface, hoop houses provide comfortable winter housing for poultry, rabbits, and pigs. The other 250 days of the year, the hoop houses shelter vegetables or — as will be obvious during the FAIR — serve as great staging areas for events and seminars! Built for both plants and animals, these dual-purpose structures are relatively cheap housing alternatives that can generate cash year-round from widely different enterprises. Plus, diverse enterprises help reduce pathogens and encourage cash flow throughout the year.

Starting chicks is both science and art. In both stationary and portable brooders, you’ll see techniques for comfort and hygiene to get both chickens and turkeys off to a good start. Bedding, temperature, water, grit, feed, and ventilation all come into play with these simple home-built structures. Anyone who sees these functional brooders will realize that scaling up is doable.

The ‘Raken’ House
Multifunctional infrastructure is a theme across the Polyface landscape. This combination rabbit-chicken (“raken”) house uses the permaculture stacking concept to enjoy cubic footage rather than just linear floor footage. Rabbits in hutches at eye level and chickens on the floor provide symbiosis. Chickens aerate the rabbit bedding to stimulate composting, and rabbits enjoy an ammonia-free living environment. In winter, pigs practice deep tillage and ready the structure for spring cleaning.

Carbon Shed 
Polyface integrates forest and open land as the foundation of its carbon economy. A commercial-scale wood chipper turns crooked and poorly formed trees into chips that form the basis of animal bedding during winter housing. This deep bedding offers a carbon-rich absorbant habitat for good bugs to keep bad bugs in check. Stockpiling carbon where it can dry down ensures that its pores can uptake the urine and nitrogen in livestock waste. According to Joel, “If all the money spent on chemical fertilizer were repurposed to forest management, we would have a brand new sacred industry to honor folks who enjoy working outside, and we would have higher organic-matter soils.”

Millennium Feathernet
Using an “X-truss” skid structure and Premier poultry net, this 1,000-layer portable setup offers truly pastured eggs at scale. The quarter-acre netting oval leapfrogs across the field in three-day moves. A guard goose protects the chickens from aerial predators. These chickens don’t have to be closed up at night, and their perimeter fencing keeps them controlled. This land-intensive system is good for smaller areas where total free range can result in damage or unhappy neighbors. The skid structure is wind-resistant, never slides down a hill, and can’t get a flat tire — all positives. The Millennium Feathernet is located in the south field (outside of the FAIR footprint), and attendees can view it on the way from or to their vehicles.

One of Polyface's most iconic innovations, this portable henhouse follows the cows and provides sanitation in the pasture. The chickens scratch through cow patties, spreading them and eating out fly larvae. The hens also pick up newly exposed crickets and grasshoppers, turning all this abundance into top-grade pastured eggs. Attendees can stop by the Eggmobile to learn how to train hens to go in at night, and to hear about moving logistics and densities. This model is land-extensive and not recommended for acreages under 50.

Pastured Pigs
A silvopasture featuring pastured pigs highlights all the components necessary for a successful operation. Land requirements, moving regimens, resting protocols, fencing, and water all need proper attention. Many people struggle to control pigs with electric fence; at this stop, attendees can see how Polyface handles hundreds of pigs a year, even in remote pastures. Since pigs can’t see very well, a highly visible fence is a key to success.


Poultry Processing
Under Public Law 90-492, the Polyface open-air poultry abattoir is and has been a keystone of the farm's success. While the current structure is more sophisticated than the first one, it still shows the simplicity of design that makes this a doable enterprise. The Polyface setup, with a well-trained eight-person crew, can run 160 to 200 birds per hour. Two people can do 40 to 50 birds per hour.

Egg Washer
Polyface currently handles about 200 dozen eggs per day. This is too many for the little $200 bucket-style washing units, and too small for $50,000 commercial units. A local farmer in the Shenandoah Valley spent several years designing and building a midsized washing machine for operations in the 100 to 500 dozen per day production category. It has many unique features, not least of which is a U-turn so it occupies a small footprint; the same person who starts the eggs into the unit can retrieve them from the same spot. Ingenious.

Andrew Salatin, Joel's grandson, has been keeping a small flock of sheep for several years. This flock of about 50 ewes and lambs has not been wormed for five years; they’re hair sheep and crossed between Katahdin, Dorper, and St. Croix. Andrew moves the sheep frequently, and Polyface is experimenting with numerous ways to incorporate them into the greater farming operation. These sheep are as close to goats as sheep can get, offering excellent weed-control opportunities.

Travis Salatin, Joel's grandson, has been raising Khaki Campbell ducks for several years. This flock of around 200 provides him with a steady egg income from folks (especially pastry chefs) who appreciate the extra richness. Ducks eat far more grass than chickens, which makes for deep-orange yolks and thick, creamy whites.

Pullets for Backyard Flocks
Lauryn Salatin, Joel's granddaughter, raises, hatches, and sells exotic pullets for folks who want small backyard flocks. Although she’s only 12, she can address fertility, mini-scale incubation, and brooding. She can hold her own in the chick department.

Pastured Broilers

If one things bears the Polyface signature the most, it’s probably the pastured broiler enterprise. The subject of Joel’s first book in 1991, Pastured Poultry Profits, this enterprise is still the heartbeat of the farm. Attendees can see the simple (some would say crude) portable shelters up close. Polyface staff ill move some during the FAIR so attendees can see the logistics and discuss density, water, feed, and other elements of this enterprise. The single biggest error people make when duplicating this proven model is to build shelters too complicated and too heavy. A demonstration will prove the efficiency of this setup, perfected over five decades.

For more information and to register for passes for the MOTHER EARTH NEWS FAIR at Polyface Farm, please visit here

Salatin Family Models Non-Industrial Farming

With the 2019 FAIR season now in the rearview mirror, we are full speed ahead on 2020 planning. That includes the first EVER on-farm FAIR experience! Advance passes for the MOTHER EARTH NEWS FAIR at Polyface Farm will be available for purchase on the FAIR website later this month, and they will include “earlybird” discounts. Check back the week of Nov. 11.

Further down in this posting are a few images featuring some of the “points of interest” that attendees will experience at this one-of-a-kind event along with captions written by Joel Salatin. First, here is a little history on the farm:

In 1961, William and Lucille Salatin moved their young family to Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, purchasing the most worn-out, eroded, abused farm in the area near Staunton. Using nature as a pattern, they and their children began the healing and innovation that now supports three generations.

Disregarding conventional wisdom, the Salatins planted trees, built huge compost piles, dug ponds, moved cows daily with portable electric fencing, and invented portable sheltering systems to produce all their animals on perennial prairie polycultures.

Today the farm arguably represents America’s premier non-industrial food production oasis. Believing that the Creator’s design is still the best pattern for the biological world, the Salatin family invites like-minded folks to join in the farm’s mission: to develop emotionally, economically, environmentally enhancing agricultural enterprises and facilitate their duplication throughout the world.


Contented salad bar beef cows lounge under a portable shade mobile at Polyface on a hot summer day. The Eggmobiles follow closely behind, enabling laying hens to scatter cow patties and eat fly larvae.  Biological sanitation duplicating nature's bird-herbivore symbiosis is a foundation to health and hygiene.  The guard goose watches for aerial predators.  Polyface models mobile and scalable infrastructure for pasture-based livestock systems throughout its production.


On-farm processing at Polyface offers environmental bio-security (chickens don’t scatter feathers all over public roads) and value-added opportunity in pastured broilers. With simple, low-cost processing infrastructure available today, highly efficient small-scale farmstead production is now possible and profitable. Benchmark throughput is 20 birds per person per hour.


Mobile boiler shelters offer pastured birds a new salad bar, new lounge area, and new bugs every morning.  Vacated squares behind the shelters quickly recuperate in newly fertilized forages. At Polyface benchmark: one person can move 4,500 broilers an hour without any more equipment than a small, customized hand dolly. To date, the farm has never lost a broiler to a hawk.  This model facilitates debt-free embryonic entry and subsequent scaling.


Pastured turkeys enjoy expansive paddocks defined and protected by electrified netting.  The “Gobbledygo” offers mobile shelter and roosts for flocks of 400 birds. Moved every couple of days, the turkeys stack an additional income to broilers, cattle, and laying hens. The multi-enterprises substantially increase income per acre and offer pathogen control through biological diversity.

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