food garden guide app
MOTHER EARTH NEWS has entered the world of mobile media, and we’d like to have your input as we plan and design future apps. Join our advisory group to help us design the best apps for you and our readers.
Check out our newly updated and expanded version of our "Food Gardening Guide" digital resource, a great gardening app available for both Apple and Android devices.
The new free Food Gardening Guide iPhone/iPad app from MOTHER EARTH NEWS provides detailed information on growing all major garden crops. Tap on a crop, and find out how to plant, when to plant, how to prevent pests and diseases, types and varieties to try, and more. In addition to crop-specific advice, the app also provides thorough details on general gardening categories, including watering, improving soil, crop rotation, garden fencing, cover crops, vertical gardening and much more.
Looking for a farming internship or apprenticeship? Search the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Center’s online directory of farming internships and apprenticeships to find one that interests you.
No matter your level of gardening expertise, our Guide to Organic Gardening app has the advice and how-to you need to dig in and grow a bountiful organic food garden. With articles on composting, beneficial insects, weed control and more, you'll have a wealth of organic gardening know-how at your fingertips after you download this app onto your Apple or Android smartphone or tablet.
Slightly underripe apples that fall to the ground must be picked up, so why not cut away the bugs and bruises and put them to good use? Here’s how to turn windfall apples into supernutritious drinks and snacks.
Learn how to identify beneficial insects from the harmful garden insect pests, and the best organic pest control methods, in our "Garden Insects Guide" App, free for smartphones and tablets.
In 2005, the USDA MyPyramid was introduced as an updated version of 1992 USDA Food Guide Pyramid. While nutrition experts pointed to flaws in the original pyramid, many have found significant flaws in the new food pyramid as well. These graphics have played a key role in nutrition education for American children, but as they continue to be reformatted and reworked, will Americans lose their faith in the USDA?
Collect apples from old homestead trees for the best in flavor for sauce and pies.
Cam appreciates all four of our seasons!
Amid mounting concerns over food security and sustainable food systems, the rise of urban gardens and agriculture has been on the rise. Due to a paralleled increase in the numbers of people interested in learning how to garden, programs in urban agriculture at colleges as well as nonprofit urban garden training programs have sprouted up across the country.
Use our popular When to Plant app to know when to plant each crop in your area.
In a war on gardens, the City of Orlando has taken issue with the rows of beans, greens, and other vegetables occupying Jason and Jennifer Helvenston's front yard garden. The Helvenstons respond to the City's request they remove their "illegal" garden.
The Natural Resources Defense Council is teaming up with popular country, bluegrass and folk musicians, including Dave Matthews and Patty Loveless, for Music Saves Mountains—a one-night fundraising event to end mountaintop removal coal mining in the Appalachians.
We have some exciting additions to announce about our award-winning Vegetable Garden Planner program and our new Grow Planner iPad app, including new seed company catalogs, a filter tool, a favorites button and an app update.
Despite their widespread use, nanoparticles are not well classified, regulated or even understood. Fortunately, the FDA is signaling a turn toward more accurate classification and rules for their use.
Jason Helvingston of Orlando, Fla., fights for his right to grow food in his front yard garden after the City of Orlando cited him for illegal gardening, pitting food self-sufficiency against city ordinance.
Your attractive food garden could win you $500 and a chance to be featured in MOTHER EARTH NEWS.
Describes the process of forming a community garden from the physical and energetic standpoints. The power of teamwork, the joy of accomplishment and the building of a feeling of group unity are described.
A recent poll asked you what percentage of people living in the U.S. you would guess grow food gardens. Most respondents underestimated the actual numbers of households with home gardens, a growing trend.
Washington, DC nutrition foundation, Weston A. Price Foundation, proposes a Healthy 4 Life dietary plan in the form of a colorful booklet and poster featuring four food groups: animal foods; grains, legumes and nuts; vegetables and fruits; and healthy fats.
Kitchen Gardeners International's 20ate campaign urges Americans to say no to junk food.
Mark Oldham shares childhood adventures of taking care of dairy cows and beef cows including milking, herding cows out to pasture and employing a cattle call in Appalachian country.
As more Americans tighten their belts to save a penny or two, many are finding they can save money by growing food-producing gardens.
Paul Fehribach sees history in food, cooking methods and recipes and he’s planning a Chicago restaurant that will source 100 percent locally and champion the historic foods and recipes of the Great Lakes region.
Characteristics of early summer apples and an applesauce recipe from MeMa’s Bakery in Kansas City.
Here's a recipe for a delectable apple pie made from windfall apples.
Cam is getting burned out on technology and seeks solace in his "low tech" garden.
A neglected, overgrown, old apple tree does have charm, its gnarled, elbowed branches seemingly ready to reach out for a hug. The fruits, unfortunately, more often than not are too small, too pest-ridden, and too high in the tree. My fear of heights makes the last deficiency most important to me. Large, clean fruits are for nought if I can’t bring myself to climb a ladder or the branches for harvest.
Food preservationist Tammy Kimbler teaches you how to make apple pie fruit leather from urban-foraged apples.
Where are we headed, vis a vis our food systems? Can we as individuals make a difference in our food? Yes!
Apartment Therapy's smart, comprehensive guide to the best summer flea markets and salvaging spots nationwide just might influence your summer travel plans.
MOTHER EARTH NEWS is proud to announce the release of the How to Can app, a free app to help you safely put up summer's bounty in a jar.
The first organic inhaler, The Lung Cleaner, hits markets.
Review of The Timber Press Guide to Vegetable Gardening in the Southeast, a new book written by Ira Wallace.
The ground hog may be signalling an early end to winter, but today's a day to stay in with good food, an arsenal of craft projects and a warming bath.
Urban food forests and public gardens provide communities with an edible landscape for everyone to share. These public fruit forests are the new trend in urban agriculture and play an important role as sustainable local food systems in their communities.
A homemade solar food dryer allows you to dry tomatoes and apples for delicious and nutritious winter snacks and addition to your meals.
The MOTHER EARTH NEWS Pickin' Chicken app has expanded its content to include more breed photos and profiles, along with additional search functions, to help you find the chicken breed you need.
Our MOTHER EARTH NEWS library app acts as a virtual library for you to download and store all of our digital resources, including our gardening apps, canning how-to guides, digital issues, and more.
Heat Holders keep in the heat in your feet.
Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli can be spread by uncomposted manure from grain-fed cattle on high-concentraton factory farms. The E. coli outbreak in northern Germany reminds us to look twice at the quality of our manure.
Winners of the Fabulous Food Garden Contest have been chosen. See who the lucky prize recipients are!
At this time of year, Cam feels a little overwhelmed by the gardening chores ahead of him.
Support America's artisan cider makers by putting locally made sweet and hard apple cider on the Thanksgiving table this year.
I noticed, as I walked the FAIR yesterday, a broad section of America.
The documentary Urban Roots takes a look at how city farming is transforming the city's vacant lots into community gardens, ultimately changing the community as a whole in the process.
New businesses are springing up catering to folks who want their food homegrown, but without the mess of tending to the garden themselves.
These resources will help you learn how to grow food and start a garden.
The past year was a rewarding one for apple discovery, because I potentially found the apple that started my apple search about sixteen years ago — the ‘Harper’s Seedling’ apple.
Many a homesteader and farmer can use help, and many a young person wants to learn homesteading skills. Having apprentices is an important means to assure a continuation of farms and farming,as well as teaching youth essential survival skills.
Have you ever wondered why our food has become so industrialized? Where some of those chemicals that are in almost everything, came from?
After a five month struggle, the San Francisco board of supervisors approved a program called GoSolarSF, making solar installations more affordable for its citizens.
Volunteers work to start the Sunset Hill Elementary School Garden in Lawrence, Kan.
This unusual water-powered clock from Bedol is powered by salt and water.
The Bedol water-and-salt-powered clock runs for six months on a teaspoon of salt.
Des Moines, Iowa, gardeners may soon find themselves in hot water with their City. A local resident recently took front yard veggie growers to task for what the resident feels to be unsightly lawn growth. Beets and berries, it seems, do not have the same aesthetic appeal as a green, freshly-mowed front lawn.
MOTHER EARTH NEWS coordinated with orchards and cideries around the country to showcase America's most beloved apples and ciders.
Sauerkraut is an effective and delicious way to store cabbage and add something "fresh" to the winter months
No juice extractor? No problem! This easy method for making fresh, delicious apple juice will have you sipping in no time.
Learn about the Ben Davis Apple, one if not the most important commercial apple of the late 1800s, and get a recipe for Apple Dumplings.
Over 700 varieties of apples and pears, for $9 each, from Wagon Wheel Orchard, plus the family's crab apple jelly recipe.
There used to be, from Maine to Georgia and west to the Mississippi river, 20.000 grafted apple varieties. Today, when commercialism is king and the most known apple varieties are the 5 kinds offered in the supermarket those old varieties are worth paying attention to. As with all things around us, diversity is interesting and sustainable.
Is having too many gardens a detriment to selling a suburban home?
A transplanted Choctaw and Southerner, a grandmother shows her strength and creativity during the Industrial Revolution and shows how one can face and adapt to life’s challenges.
Always wanted to master the art of the perfect pie crust? With our step-by-step How to Make the Perfect Pie Crust app, you'll have the techniques and recipes you need at your fingertips. The app comes with scrumptious pie filling recipes, too!
The Federal Trade Commission’s proposed revisions to its environmental marketing guidelines would make it more difficult for marketers to make false green claims for their products.
A short list of gift ideas for gardeners.
In Kenya, even for middle class families, much of what ends up on the dinner table is grown or raised at home. With food prices rising, more and more Americans are looking towards ways of growing some of what ends up on their table at home. Both in terms of personal health, and the environment, this is a very good trend—it's a food source as local as you can get.
Michelle knows how much work it is to grow strawberries.... and she's happy to be able to buy them at any price!
Cam has a great deal of respect for farmers.
The search for the long lost apples of Isaac Bowen Essex, the Fulton County Apple.
Our thoughts on the gluten free, dairy free, soy free desserts from RawCreations.
Pruning apple trees to a three by three central leader shape for strength against high winds and to prevent fungal infection.
This is a summary of our attendance at the IBS show in Jan. Also a re-cap of Jan events and our transistion into the construction phase of the project. We also talk about the decision for the competiton to be moved off the Nationa Mall in DC
Emma Jane James of Appalachia, Virginia, inquires about her Kansan family tree and reminisces about better days in her coal-mining town, before mountaintop removal and pollution took their toll.
Learn how to cook with these three great smartphone apps: How to Cook Everything, Big Oven and Ratio.
Tools and techniques for sustainable living.
Looser standards and self-certification have led to a market flooded with Energy Star appliances—many with questionable qualifications.
Sometimes the wildlife can get kind of wild around here....
The experience of growing one's first garden is a thrill one will never forget.
Spring tasks around the homestead.
In praise of the garden fork.
Allowing children the space to discover the beauty and wonder of plants through tending to their own garden builds character, teaches responsibility, gives insight into the beauty of nature and fosters their connection with where their food comes from.
I separate the fact from the fiction with use of soluble fertilizers.
Check what products and companies use animal testing with PETA’s “Be Nice to Bunnies” iPhone app.
The handy free How to Can app has been updated, and is now available inside the free MOTHER EARTH NEWS Library app. Now you can take yield, processing times and more with you on your Apple or Android device!
The community garden in East Harlem, Chenchita's Garden, is beginning to take shape.
You can help support a community garden in New York City's East Harlem neighborhood.
Having little space is not a reason to not be growing your own food. It's just an excuse. I've been apartment gardening since 2009.
You want to start your urban garden from seed this year, but you're not sure where to start because you’ve only started from transplants.
Here are six of my favorite ideas for those of you with small spaces and still want to get your garden on.
The beginnings of the orchard project, and an early spring surprise.
Garlic is a very labour-intensive crop to grow but the rewards are worth it!
Finding wild morel mushrooms growing in our urban backyard means plenty of marvelous meals.
Cam loves growing and selling food!
Cam has been busy harvesting and sorting potatoes.
The drought conditions at Sunflower Farm are making Cam rather cranky.
Ranting about the drought worked! We got rain here at Sunflower Farm!
By observing the birds and wildlife we learn valuable lessons to apply to our lives.
Save money and energy at home by choosing energy-efficient products whenever you purchase home appliances or computers and other electronics.
Growing Local Food is a new book that encompasses all the needed basics to grow plants, keep heritage breed animals and bees. The author is a homesteader and physician who gives the readers the basic information to grow or find nutritious, local food
Old-fashioned cider pressing embodies fall — and creates a delicious treat! Rick Godsil of Wagon Wheel Orchard shares fond memories of pressing cider on the family orchard.
This recipe for apple stock adds a depth of fall flavor to dishes normally cooked with chicken stock or vegetable stock, such as butternut squash soup.
Apple expert Gary Paul Nabhan reviews a new book: Old Southern Apples by Creighton Lee Calhoun, Jr.
Want fresh cider? Make your own cider press using these free plans.
Using an MPG app may help reduce your consumption of gas, and make your commute and road trips more economical and green.
Making delicious homemade marmalade from Seville oranges.
Cam has been playing with and skating on thick ice lately.
Cam has a "reality check" moment and realizes how lucky he is!
As we approach the celebration of Thanksgiving here in Canada, Cam reflects on what he is thankful for.
Cam loves living in a place where he can enjoy the night skies.... even if he doesn't completely understand what he's looking at some of the time!
Cam battles with the flying squirrels who want to inhabit his guesthouse using some unique weapons.
Cam can't think of anywhere he'd rather be than on his own private skating rink.
One of the easiest ways to bask and rejoice in the gifts of nature is to make and use a solar wall heater.
The perfect partner for pruning, weeding and harvesting.
Smaller version of the original Gardener’s Hollow Leg is perfect for picking dinner!
Friday, May 10 is National Public Gardens Day. Find out what special events are happening at a garden near you.
Readers suggest favorite hard, salty, American cheeses.
Nuts.com, a family-owned business, offers certified organic snacks and superfoods.
Ditch unhealthy school lunches with a fresh lunch idea for kids: school gardens. Beyond putting fresh, healthy food in schools, cafeteria gardens are a great classroom tool and a big step towards more sustainable schools.
Company launches dynamic, new CSR communications portal to provide real-time content and discussion around social and environmental efforts.
Brief description of our journey back onto the National Mall, our Flex Space design, and our Solar Thermal Skylight.
Delicious latkes made with potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes are tasty and nutritious.
Anna remembers her grandmother's tasty buttermilk biscuits with fig preserves and her mother's stories of growing up on a small, in-town homestead in the 60s.
Help grow an organic food garden on the White House lawn. Here are some easy ways you can participate.
If you know much of each food from your garden you consume each year, you can better plan how much to grow.
Simran Sethi describes the choices she made for her eco-friendly kitchen remodel.
Although winter is setting in, that doesn't mean an end to the garden season in desert climates! Get inspired by this beautiful rainwater-harvesting, food-producing desert landscape!
High-efficiency washers save energy, water and money with every load. And with the average household washing 400 loads per year, those savings add up.
This is the last of a series in home and energy options available to us. It is a short summary of all of the choices we have when designing a new home on or off grid that will benefit your energy use.
HOMEGROWN.org unwraps its 2013 holiday gift guide, featuring lots of homemade presents, as well as a few stocking stuffers for under $20.
The Environmental Protection Agency has compiled a list of more than 100 green apps.
Self-pollinating apple trees allow homeowners with little space to reap the benefits of this fresh, nutritious fruit. While typical apple breeds require planting at least two trees in the same space so they can pollinate each other, self-fertile trees can produce fruit without another tree around.
Freshly picked apples make a perfect treat for any age in this week’s Photo of the Week. Keep snapping and sharing for your chance to have one featured in the magazine!
Check out these resources to learn more about heirloom apples, as well as the how-to and history of cider-making.
Top bar hive modifications, turkey traps, and gourmet potatoes are just a few of the topics covered in the past week of blogging we've been up to. Homesteading healthcare and a new virtual book club round off the week with several reader comments.
Learn to create your own heirloom kitchen garden at this 3-course series in Pennsylvania.
Daby Napthine shares her grandfather's 5 tips to growing healthy apple trees.
Growing organic apples isn’t impossible! Follow these tips and methods for avoiding pest damage and growing apples organically.
Don't let your wanderlust for more space hold you back from creating your homestead in the city.
A potential solution to rising food prices, food insecurity and the obesity epidemic may call into play raising farms inside the city limits.
Linda Gilkeson, master gardener, and Jessie Price of EatingWell Magazine will present workshops on gardening and healthy cooking at the Mother Earth News Fair, an annual sustainability festival, June 4-5, 2011 in Puyallup, Wash.
It is possible to grow fresh crops through the dark months even without a greenhouse, and even where we live, a thousand miles from the Arctic Circle, where the winter sun brings only brief and meager light.
New approach to renewable home energy – heating with pelletized fuel in free-standing pellet stoves and fireplace inserts. Generally made from recycled wood byproducts, pellets are low carbon fuel that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
LG Electronics unveiled a new energy-efficient bottom-freezer refrigerator at the Maison & Object living design exhibition in Paris. The product, which uses linear compressor technology to save energy, was named the best example of an eco-chic product at the exhibition.
New standards for Energy Star refrigerators and freezers will reduce energy consumption and include “connected” features.
Your local Habitat for Humanity ReStore is a great place to find inexpensive building supplies and appliances, and you can even donate your leftover supplies when your project is complete. Proceeds from your purchases support Habitat for Humanity and future housing projects.
I feed my vegetable and fruit plants organically, taking into account our ocean-dwelling ancestors.
My first blog for MOTHER EARTH NEWS takes me back to a time when I didn't know I had a love of gardening. One of my first gardening experiences came during an unlikely encounter with my curmudgeon grandfather.
So, what do you do if you neglected to start your veggies way back in January or February? You had good intentions but there always seemed to be something that stole your attention. Now it’s the planting season and you have nothing to plant...
Your local county extension office can answer questions on gardening, livestock, poultry, crops, garden pests and more.
Check out this roundup of 10 favorite sustainable gifts for the gardeners on your list — all under $50!
Growing potatoes in containers allows you to increase your yield in a small amount of space.
When you say “organic” most people think of elitists that are buying over priced food because they think that they are better than others. What does the “organic” really mean though?
When you ask people if they want chemicals in their garden or on their food, most will say no. They want to limit their exposure to the chemicals and pollutants.
With more than 40 years of expertise on how to live on less (and love it!), MOTHER EARTH NEWS introduces our Guide to Self-Reliance and Country Skills app. This app, available for both Apple and Android smartphones and tablets, contains advice and how-to on organic gardening, raising backyard chickens, canning and preserving your harvests, and how to save money by applying a DIY mentality to your life.
Home design apps for smart phones and iPads make visualizing your dream home even easier.
A reader wonders whether it is safe to use a galvanized stock tank as a garden planter.
Baking the Great American Apple Pie chases away the blues and grays that sometimes afflict the homestead.
Want to find a new garden plot for next year? Look into community gardens in your area, or start your own!
You'll love our recommended real food find: pomegranate golden balsamic vinegar from California.
During the coldest months of winter, field garlic is still ready to be harvested. Even when the ground is too frozen for digging up the savory bulbs, the leaves can be used like chives.
Western culture has taught us to eat all the wrong things for all the wrong reasons.
Violet leaves are one of the best wild edible salad greens. Their pretty, edible flowers are only in season for a few weeks.
When it's -30 degrees outside you can make your own snow!
Cam shares his experiences getting lost in the woods.
Cam describes why his method of harvesting firewood from his woodlot is the most sustainable way.
Cam describes why he was anxious to leave the city for a life in the country.
Cam prefers the view from his office in his country home.
The Spirit of Hope garden in Detriot offers a safe, nurtuting place for plants and children to grow.
Food labels are confusing, but you can be sure that processed foods with many ingredients are not as healthful as whole foods. Here is a explanation of processed-food ingredients and some suggestions for healthful breakfast foods.
Readers share tips and tricks for taking care of winter garden beds.
Can’t have a garden of your own, but you want to garden? Urban Garden Share allows you to do exactly that!
A good watering system will save you time and money in your garden.
The innovative garden seeder from Simple Seeder increases speed and ease of planting.
Who needs a TV drama, when, out the back door, we have our own alfresco drama, complete with territory battles, births, deaths, alien invasions, mystery, beauty and fornication, unfolding daily before our very eyes if we care to look.
Roger Doiron, a MOTHER EARTH NEWS contributor and the found of Kitchen Gardeners International, recently spoke at a TEDx conference about the power of gardening.
Tired of pests? Here are five tips for knocking ‘em back without resorting to pesticides and toxic chemicals.
In this posting we will ask the question if the climate is reaching a tipping point. We will define climate tipping points and use the paat to determine if we are reaching tipping points. We will also discuss climate feedback amplification.
A new guide-to-meat book.
Here’s what to look for when purchasing a portable table saw for DIY building projects around your homestead.
How to make spiced crab apples.
Expert advice on best organic fertilizer options for new apple trees and grape vines.
Sue Van Slooten shares her easy recipe for apple strudel— a delicious pastry of phyllo dough, apples, spices, and of course, butter.
Learning the basics about electricity will help you conserve energy.
There are various means for developing an edible landscape.
In Arizona, an intrepid desert gardener harvests rainwater to grow his own food. A Missouri garden writer feeds his soil to feed himself. In Texas, a garden wall encourages community. These are a few of my favorite gardens.
What exactly is water kefir soda? Well, I describe it as pop that makes you forgo buying cans from the store, all while making your tummy happy. The experts call it a “probiotic beverage made with kefir grains that consist of bacteria and yeast existing in a symbiotic relationship.”
These sweet, wholesome scones come together in a flash and make use of August’s abundance of wild blackberries.
Eating black-eyed peas for luck on New Year’s reminds me of my grandmother's kitchen. Every year since I have had my own garden I include as many of these easy to grow southern staples as space allows into my garden plans and you can, too.
Weatherization Program Nearly Doubles Payback in One Easy Step with GE's new GeoSpring™ Hybrid Water Heater
These space-saving, smart front loading units perfectly accommodate apartments and small spaces and eliminate the need to wash your clothes, remove them from the washer and place them into a separate machine for drying.
Did you know that a dirty filter in your HVAC equipment can reduce its efficiency by up to 20 percent? Didyou also know that it is recommended to check your filter every month? Don’t despair!
We use available time in the winter to preform routine maintenance on appliances and tools.
Let's dream a little dream of green home improvement, without worries about funding.
Earthbag building has just received engineering approval. This is probably the greatest news ever for earthbag building. With engineer-approved plans, we see unlimited potential for earthbag building for homes, shops, schools, you name it.
Precision Engineering www.structure1.com has generously provided drawings and specifications for building earthbag structures in seismic areas to meet code. The documents have been combined into one 6-page PDF and are now available online.
This blog contains a detailed list of most of my initial design priorities for my net zero energy home so others may benefit from my thinking and experience on creating a passive solar, net zero energy, green home.
Create more than 12,000 different healthy salad dressings using this App.
Fresh apple cider is a traditional part of fall harvest celebrations - a part that we at MOTHER EARTH NEWS wouldn't miss! We put the Whizbang Apple Grinder and Cider Press to the test, and happily sampled the fresh apple cider as a result.
Simran Sethi teams up with two neighbors to "grow food, not lawns."
Completing tasks in preparation for a few days away from the homestead
Part of gardening is knowing what to do with your veggies after you've grown them. Here, we will examine what to do with those pie pumpkins this upcoming Fall.
Deborah Niemann of Antiquity Oaks will present two workshops on traditional home dairies and homegrown food at the Mother Earth News Fair, an annual sustainability festival, September 24-25, 2011 in Seven Springs, Pa.
Jennifer R. Bartley of American Potager will present a workshop on cooking with herbs and vegetables from a kitchen garden at the Mother Earth News Fair, an annual sustainability festival, September 24-25, 2011 in Seven Springs, Pa.
Simran Sethi starts dreaming of spring gardening, with the goal of renewing her efforts to grow real food.
The ENERGY STAR Rebate Finder app uses your zip code to find sales tax exemptions, credits, or rebates on qualified products.
Think your balcony's too tiny to provide food and fun? Check out Apartment Therapy's great tips for making the most of your outdoor space.
Most Americans believe that cleaning products are required to list ingredients on labels. They're not. But Whole Foods is taking matters into its own hands with a color-coded rating system that holds manufacturers accountable for green claims.
Chicago and New York City vie to be the first to pass a green food resolution.
Blume Distillation debuts appropriate-scale biofuel distillation equipment that will allow farmers, entrepreneurs, municipalities and communities to produce their own alcohol fuel from a variety of readily available fuel stock sources.
A BIG issue in everyone’s lives today is increasing fuel costs. The seriousness and scope of our energy problems calls for an all-out effort for sustainable solutions, starting as soon as possible.