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The solar cell had its birth in 1873, as bars of selenium. When two British scientists, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day, in 1876, exposed the bars to candlelight they discovered something totally new: that light, not heat, could directly generate electricity in certain materials such as selenium. Adams and Day called the current produced this way, “photoelectric.” But try as they may, no one could increase selenium’s low conversion of sunlight into electricity and scientists concluded that to realize the vision of solar cells powering the world would require finding a new photovoltaic material.
That came when the collaborative effort of Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson at Bell Laboratories developed a photovoltaic device capable of converting enough sunlight directly into electricity to generate useful
At the time of the Bell announcement in 1954, all the solar cells in the world delivered about one watt. Today, more than 100 billion watts of generating capacity of photovoltaics have been installed worldwide. This year not only marks the 60th anniversary of the silicon solar cell but also the beginning of reaching the Holy Grail solar scientists had only previously dreamed of – entering the Era of Grid Parity, where solar panels generate power at costs equal to or less than electricity produced by fossil fuels and nuclear. With the phenomenal growth of solar pv in the last several years and its future even brighter, the time is ripe to celebrate the founding of a technology that led Science magazine almost forty years ago to declare, “If there is a dream solar technology, it is photovoltaics - solar cells...a space-age electronic marvel at once the most sophisticated solar technology and the simplest, most environmentally benign source of electricity yet conceived.”
Join us to celebrate the 60th birthday of practical photovoltaics and the great growth in solar electricity it has sired.
The material for the blog and upcoming world-wide celebration comes from John Perlin’s recently published book, Let It Shine: The 6000-Year Story of Solar Energy. For more information on the book, see the Renewable Energy Blog post "Let It Shine." The celebration will kick off in Palo Alto, California on April 18, 2014, where guests will get to meet some of the great remaining original solar pioneers and hear from the Mayor of Palo Alto how the city is procuring all its power from solar and other renewables. For more details, go to PV60.org.)