Cut Your Grocery Bill in Half

It’s true! You can reduce your grocery bill, and enjoy better and healthier food in the bargain.

grocery bill - woman cutting vegetables

Cooking at home, with simple whole foods, is one of the fastest ways to reduce your grocery bill.


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Everybody eats, and what you eat is getting more expensive all the time. By September 2008, food prices had risen 13 percent in just three years — to about $165 a week, or $8,580 a year on average for two-income families that include two to three people. Can you really cut a grocery bill that size n half? You bet you can, and in the process you will also improve the overall quality and security of your food supply.

It should come as no surprise that cooking at home is a huge step in the right direction, and it may require less time than you think. Growing some of your own food is a big help, too, whether you are growing a garden or investing some volunteer time with a community garden, school garden or CSA (community-supported agriculture, a system where members receive produce directly from a farm). But first there is another matter to address, which most people find about as pleasurable as stepping on the scale. You must take an honest look at where your food dollars are going now.

If you save your receipts from groceries and eating out for a few weeks, you’ll have all the data you need to start making plans. As you study your bread crumb trail of information, make notes on your buying patterns. These tend to vary wildly from one household to another. When a team of researchers from the University of Utah analyzed the food buying patterns of more than 10,000 Americans, they found that only about 30 percent fell into the desirable “balanced” diet category — people who tended to buy fresh food to cook and eat at home, with occasional meals enjoyed out. Meanwhile many folks were spending nearly half of their food dollars on restaurants and fast food; 7 percent spent more than a third of their food budget on alcohol.

Once you know where you stand, you can start making your food dollars stretch further, which will probably require changes in what and how you eat — and drink. As you consider the strategies below for reducing food costs, remember that you don’t need to do everything at once. There are three paths to follow: develop a food-efficient diet, keep a food-efficient kitchen, and spend your food dollars as wisely as you can. And even better, you may find that you truly enjoy some of these strategies, which are not only good for your wallet, but also maximize flavor and nutrition.

Follow a Food-efficient Diet

Eat mostly plants. A diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and grains typically costs 20 percent less than a diet that revolves around meat. From a practical point of view, a thrifty veg-first strategy will take you into a wonderland of inexpensive, protein-rich, and easy-to-store dry beans and peas. If you cook a batch of beans a week, you’ll have the makings for burritos, veggie burgers, salads and soups, all for pennies a serving. Try different kinds: Beans and peas come in a huge range of shapes, colors, sizes and textures. When you find one you love, set some aside to grow in your garden.

Before you cook them, soak beans in water for eight to 24 hours (larger beans can soak longer). As they plump, the beans will release the gases that cause flatulence. Soaked beans can be simmered on the stove or in a crock pot, or you can cook them (very efficiently!) in a pressure cooker in less than 15 minutes. (And you don’t even have to soak the beans. If you start with dry beans, a pressure cooker can have them ready to eat in about half an hour.)

Choose pastured meat, dairy and eggs. Pastured products are not only more nutritious than industrial meat, but also more eco-friendly. (Visit the Safe Meat Landing Page for several articles about this)

At stores or direct from farmers, organic and free-range eggs, dairy products, and meat do cost more than their conventional counterparts. But keep an eye on those prices — the gap is closing significantly as mainstream food costs surge upward.

Foods derived from healthy, humanely raised animals that enjoy sunshine and exercise are worth the extra cost as they provide added benefits when it comes to nutrition, food safety, and basic morality. And if you buy locally, you can add the environment and your local economy to the list of beneficiaries.

For all these reasons, I gladly paid $2.55 a pound for the turkeys that a local organic farmer raised for me last year. The freshly harvested birds came with a hidden bonus: Simply having this caliber of meat in the house made it hard to make a case for a budget-busting lunch or dinner elsewhere.

Also consider that many homesteads can easily support a few dairy or meat animals, making laying hens, poultry, dairy goats, or a family milk cow well worth their upkeep. The trick to producing your own eggs, dairy, or meat economically is simple: stick with animals that earn a food profit vs. adopting too many as pets.

Improve your snacking smarts. In defense of snacking, it is possible that grazing one’s way through the day is more natural, biologically speaking, than sitting down to ceremonial meals three times a day. We were hunter-gatherers not so long ago, which is fine when you’re picking blueberries or eating fresh snap peas off the vine. But when the hunter compulsion has you tiptoeing through a dark kitchen to harvest a bag of chips, you may have a costly problem, in terms of both calories and cash.

I am quite familiar with this syndrome, which is why I have learned to turn the most affordable and humble of ingredients — flour, water, and salt — into otherwise pricey snack foods such as pita chips, pretzels or toasted bagel slices. I dry lots of seasonal fruits, too; so even after adding purchased nuts, my ever-changing snack mixes cost 70 percent less than the store-bought versions. And then there is popcorn, and parching corn, and several millets and amaranths known for their roasting qualities — any of which may be a perfect fit to your garden and your favorite TV chair. You really can do better than chips made hundreds or thousands of miles away that cost $3 to $5 a bag.

Learn to use locally abundant foods, including wild foods such as mushrooms, nuts, and berries. Frequently these can be had for the harvesting (check to see if you need a permit to gather on public land), or you might find them as great seasonal deals at farmers markets. The price usually drops when the crop comes in, so buy when the supply is at its peak to get excellent quality at a good price. From pecans in the Southeast to wild Maine blueberries to the Pacific Northwest’s bounty of mushrooms, every area has its riches and often you can harvest them yourself for free.

Eat whole, eat plain. Whole grains are supernutritious, tasty, and cheap. Whole oat grains, called groats, cook into a truly satisfying breakfast for about 25 cents per serving, and a $2 bag of gourmet brown rice can anchor many meals for the whole family. Once cooked, whole grains can go into spicy stir-fries, be paired with roasted meats, or taken in a sweeter direction with diced apples, cinnamon and brown sugar. The important thing is to have them around, ready to eat. Whole grains such as wheat berries, groats, hulled barley, or brown rice take about an hour to cook on the stove, or 15 to 20 minutes in a pressure cooker. (Some grains, such as quinoa and millet, cook up even faster.) By cooking two batches per week, you will have inexpensive, ready-to-eat whole grains available at all times.

How to Run a Food-efficient Kitchen

Cook and eat at home. Numbers from the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2005 Consumer Expenditure Survey show that Americans spend about half of their food dollars away from home — a figure that began to decline last year as food prices went up. Still, it’s a no-brainer that home food is cheaper than eating out, even if you must buy all of the ingredients, or you are just learning to cook. You will not be alone. Restaurant revenues are down, but sales of cookware and cookbooks are on the rise. And few things are as enjoyable as savoring fresh and fragrant dishes that come from your own kitchen.

Make big batches. Consider a pot of split pea soup, easily made by soaking a pound of dry peas in water for a few hours, and then simmering them with onions, celery and carrots (and some would insist, good bacon or ham). You now have enough soup for two, three or even four meals, depending on the size of your household. As soon as the mother batch cools, pack up single servings in freezer containers; they will keep frozen for six months. Do not underestimate the overall value (in cost and time savings) of such efforts. Reheated in the middle of winter, a bowl of frozen chili made with the last peppers and tomatoes from your garden will taste like heaven.

Spend Your Food Dollars Wisely

Shop at home first. If you grow any food, or stock up through farmers markets at peak season (which is when you can get the best deals on any kind of produce), always shop your freezer and pantry first. Even garlic and winter squash won’t keep forever, and the garden treasures in your freezer are best used within a few months. Plus, you’re less likely to buy things you don’t really need if you shop in your own “store” before heading to the market.

Take your lunch. When you pack up some pasta salad made the day before and take it to work, it’s almost like having a free lunch. Even a cheap fast food lunch can cost $5, as will a Styrofoam box of salad bar selections from the supermarket. Compare and contrast: a homemade salad wrap with garden-grown spinach or arugula, or a $6 sandwich that came to you through the labyrinth of our institutional food supply? We should address packaging here, too, because the amount of paper, cardboard and plastic waste involved in a fast-food lunch should make us all queasy. Be sure to bring your own snacks to work, too, which will make it easier to avoid break room donuts and vending machine junk. 

(See our How to Make Beer, Cider and More landing page for more on making wine, beer and hard cider.) At my house, we make lovely “country” wines from our apples, plums and other fruits, but if you have no fruit you can make wine using packaged juices. Stores that sell winemaking supplies usually stock packaged “varietal” juices such as chardonnay, cabernet sauvignon, etc., which can be fermented into wine at a cost of about $2 per bottle.

Homebrewing is as fun and easy as home winemaking, and the payoff in both cases rises with your level of skill. If you avoid the temptation to invest in equipment you really don’t need, and tweak your recipes and procedures to achieve superior results, you will also save a bundle in the long run.

Work with a CSA. When various studies have compared the value of food delivered in weekly boxes by member-supported CSAs to their retail counterparts, costs come out about even. (Search our website to learn more about CSAs.) This is as it should be; there is fundamental absurdity in the notion that organic produce should be cheap just because it is farmer-direct. Yet there are two easy ways to reduce your CSA bill. First, if your CSA offers them, sign up for extra volunteer hours, which will earn you a significant discount on your membership fee. If you are seriously short of funds, apply for a discounted membership. Loyal patrons of established CSA farms often donate enough money to cover sponsored memberships for others, and some CSAs accept food stamps and have grant money to cover costs for low-income members. (Learn more at the United States Department of Agriculture.)

Use coupons for brands you like. It is definitely worthwhile to keep track of coupons for products you buy repeatedly, and to seek out coupons for expensive items such as olive oil or dairy products. The easiest way is to use the Internet, because printable coupons are offered on Web sites for manufacturers and specific stores. Organic Valley and Stonyfield, for example, offer a nice selection of $1 coupons on their sites, or you can shop for local specials via Web sites hosted by big supermarket chains such as Safeway, Kroger, or Food Lion. Coupons not found using either of these methods are also not likely to turn up using various coupon-finding sites, many of which require a cumbersome registration anyway.

Buy cooperatively in bulk. If you feel alone in your quest for the most basic organic foods at a fair price — such as whole grains, flours and peanut butter — you can check with a local food co-op, which may be able to get you a better price than is offered in the store’s bulk bins (home of great buys on whole grains, dry legumes, and herbs and spices). They also can often order hard-to-find items at your request. Another option is to participate in — or even organize — a buying club, which is a group of about seven or more households that combine their orders to get wholesale pricing on just about anything you might buy at a health food store. In addition to saving you money on staples such as flour and rice, a buying club connects you with fellow members on distribution day, when everyone gets together to divvy things up. The biggest national distributor, United Buying Clubs, can help you connect with your closest club.

Glean in season. Historically, when farmers finished harvesting all they wanted of their crops, they invited the local peasants to come and get what was left behind. These days, gleaning is being redefined as “food recovery,” which might involve rescuing overripe fruits from a produce manager’s discard bin, or channeling a caterer’s leftovers to a homeless shelter.

But on a more everyday level, large gardens and small farms always produce more vegetables and fruits than can be picked or considered marketable. By talking with vendors at your local farmers market or networking through FreecycleCraigslist, or other free databases, you may be surprised at what you can get as long as your requests are keyed to the seasons. In early summer, offer to glean strawberries. In the fall, put out a request for bruised apples and pears, which are great for canning. And, when you hear that the first freeze is coming in a few days, call up gardeners or organic growers you know and ask if there is anything you can come and help pick. Be forewarned: Gardeners are incredibly generous people. Bring along lots of boxes and bags for greens, herbs, and other end-of-season treasures.

How Much Do You Waste?

A recent study from the University of Arizona shows that most people underestimate how much food they waste. For example, you might think you are tossing only about 1 percent of the food that goes through your kitchen, but the real number is probably closer to 15 percent! Some things will get lost in the refrigerator no matter what you do, but you can save money day after day by minimizing waste.

  • Use leftovers by combining them in mysteriously delicious wraps, omelets, or soups.
  • Make smoothies from fruit (or veggies!) that will soon be overripe. Ripe unpeeled bananas will turn black if you freeze them, but they will still be fine for smoothies. Turn overripe apples into spicy applesauce.
  • Make your own stocks and broths from meat and vegetable trimmings. You can freeze stock in glass canning jars as long as you leave 2 inches of head space to allow for expansion.
  • Freeze temporary overstocks of bread, including hard crusts or stale bread. Use them to make French toast, bread pudding, seasoned bread crumbs, or savory stratas.
  • When you do go out to eat, take along a food container and bring home your leftovers (thus avoiding non-reusable takeout packaging). Many restaurant portions are so huge that you can easily get a second meal from a “normal” entrée. Another good option is to split entrées. Many restaurants are happy to split an order onto two plates if you ask.
  • Clean out your refrigerator once a week. Eat, cook, or freeze anything that’s worth saving.
  • Declare periodic “food rest days,” during which the head cook gets the day off, thus encouraging active refrigerator foraging by other household members.

Fight the Urge to Buy

  • Keep a shopping list and stick to it. Up to 40 percent of supermarket purchases are impulse buys.
  • Check prices on beautiful end-of-aisle displays; promoted products are not necessarily on sale.
  • Remind yourself: Avoid shopping for food when you’re really hungry!

We sell many excellent cookbooks that focus on seasonality and the best ways to use whole, primary ingredients such as veggies and whole grains. To browse the titles, visit Mother Earth Shopping.

Contributing editor Barbara Pleasant gardens in southwest Virginia, where she grows vegetables, herbs, fruits, flowers and a few lucky chickens. Contact Barbara by visiting her website or finding her on .

1/4/2016 11:05:50 AM

Wow, I'm 71 and my husband is 60, there's just two of us and we eat on $100.00 a MONTH! It would be a miracle if we had $165.00 a month to spend on groceries!

1/31/2015 10:28:01 AM

I ment to say that I retry my canning jar lids in the food dryer after washing to make them last longer. Pat Crow

1/31/2015 10:25:16 AM

Very useful info. The new canning lids seem to rust after the first use. I now dry mine after washing to make them usable longer. An elderly friend told me that during WWII they would use Brillo to remove rust spots due to the scarcity of metal items. Pat Crow

1/16/2015 4:46:00 AM

What a great article. It is often hard to justify the expense of fresh, grass-fed meats when compared with the cheap "junk meats" onsale in most stores. But the real cost is in the effect of these factory-produced meats on the body. paying the price up front for healthy meats and then using every bit of it by making soups, casseroles etc with the leftovers can greatly reduce not only your food bills but also your doctors bills! Also, growing even modest amounts of food at home in small plots, bins or pots will give you fresh, nutritious vegetables and fruits and also a great sense of independence and pride---hopefully encouraging one to grow more! And then you start saving your own seeds.....and the rest is history! Diane Lassen,RN, Holistic Health Coach

1/5/2015 1:42:31 PM

very good article. Another avanue for fresh fruits and veggies is an organization called Bountiful Baskets. They offer a good variety of fruits and veggies for a very nominal fee. You don't have any option in what you get so be prepared to try new things.

1/5/2015 8:59:11 AM

I always take my lunch when I go to town to shop, and I'm amazed at the long queues for expensive junk at the food court, while I sit there having my delicious and nutritious sandwich on homemade multigrain bread, salad and fruit!

7/11/2014 1:56:26 AM

A very relevant topic in today’s scenario where the grocery prices are increasing like wild fire. Growing your own vegetables and fruits is one of the best remedies suggested for this. Hope the prices would come down sooner. I will be making a vegetable garden in my house soon.

terri talarek king_2
11/17/2010 10:35:26 AM

Besides putting up food (canning, freezing, drying, etc.), I find that one of the best ways to save my food dollars is to make efficient and creative use of what we already have on hand. Lots of bits of things can be used for soups, stews, casseroles, quiches, salads, stir-fries, smoothies, stocks, etc. etc. I think it's fun to look at what you have, especially what needs to be used first, and just come up with something! Different every time. Also a good way to experiment with the additions of herbs and spices, and other flavoring.

terri talarek king_2
11/17/2010 10:29:20 AM

Besides putting up food (canning, freezing, drying, etc.), I find that one of the best ways to save my food dollars is to make efficient and creative use of what we already have on hand. Lots of bits of things can be used for soups, stews, casseroles, quiches, salads, stir-fries, smoothies, stocks, etc. etc. I think it's fun to look at what you have, especially what needs to be used first, and just come up with something! Different every time. Also a good way to experiment with the additions of herbs and spices, and other flavoring.

4/10/2009 3:27:17 PM

I had never heard of a buying club before, so I went online one Wednesday afternoon to find out more. By Wednesday night, I was my club's newest member! Thank you so much for turning me onto this method of buying now I can actually afford to buy many of the organic or natural items that I generally want to buy but can't always justify. In fact, I've spoken so excitedly about it that two of my coworkers went out and joined groups in their area - what a great way to make an impact on others. I encourage all of you to check it out:

joy shepard_2
3/12/2009 4:00:38 PM

AWESOME article. I fully agree with the changes that this author talks about. I say use the internet to your advantage in getting recipes for things that you would normally buy (ie tortillas, chips, fries, bread, yogurt, etc). If you don't have a trading group for coupons, excess produce, etc. start one or go on line to find trading groups (mostly for coupons and items). Coupons are a grocery shoppers best friend right now and if you look for them on the websites of products you like you can find so many. There are also many sites that have a general grouping that changes about every two weeks. As I said before, if you have internet access, then use it to your advantage. YOu will be glad that you did. Remember things are not always as dificult to do when you do it one step at a time.

3/12/2009 11:16:01 AM

In defense of CSA prices, I can only say that in my CSA I buy premium seeds, the best organic fertilizers (and my own compost), and have to cover the cost of containers, etc. I work 10 hours a day during the season. At least. Plus there is the cost of gas in the truck for deliveries. There is a certain price that I need to ask in order to make any money at all from the endeavor. I try to make my organic food available, however, to lower income people. I do offer work shares, and when I sell at the local market I take WIC coupons (which means I have to attend a workshop and do a lot of paperwork -- more work). For the best prices, it's certain that you will do best by growing your own. But for those who cannot do that or don't have the time, they will find no better food than what their local CSA's can provide. :)

joannette sieve_5
2/15/2009 2:02:49 PM

I think one of the best things you can do for yourself is learn to can food. Even meat will keep its good taste longer canned than in the freezer This year I have been drying vegetables. That seems to be working out very well. I got my very nice dehydrator at a garage sale for just $3! Usually the fruit I get (I don't have fruit trees however people know I want fruit so they call me and tell me to come over and pick apples, appricots or cherries)is canned or made into jams and jellies. If you only have a small quanity of fruit, jams and jellies are the best way to extend the delicious taste. Don't overlook wild fruits and berries as well. My favorite jelly is wild plum. Lastly, I would like to say that I am disappointed in the CSA farm in my area. I know that they have to make a profit and I don't fault them for that, but I can't afford $10 a gallon milk or their expensive meats and vegetables. I have come to the conclusion that organically grown food is only available to those with generous incomes. I will have to stick to my own small garden, as I am retired and on a fixed income.

m. haller yamada
2/15/2009 1:09:58 AM

I read your article in the magazine, and it was great! What I would dearly love is recipes for crispy pretzels and tortilla chips. (-: I've figured out the secret to potato chips (salt them, let them sit, then squeeze them out before frying them), but the really nice thing about making your own "junk food" is that you really realize what is going into that food. A single potato does not make a bag of potato chips . . . and a serving size *really* is about 10 or 20 for a snack. Keep up the great work!

raymond james
2/10/2009 8:24:45 PM

To expand on your ideas on canning your own foods and a buying club. If you and your neighbors/friends would like to start canning but do not now own a canner and the associated equipment consider purchasing it as a group. When I moved to mid-Missouri I was extremly fortunate to have a neighbor who had a large assortment of canning equipment (bowls, collandars, peelers, jar lifters, large spoons and canners)who regularly held canning parties with her neighbors and family. I overheard her asking some ladies who might have another canner to use so I offered mine. Best thing I ever did. Many hands make light work was something these ladies live by. If you have ever tried to can with small children in the house you will appriciate having someone to take turns watching the kids. Besides, somehow it is easier to clean, peel, cut and can when you have someone to talk to. Also by doing the canning as a group you will be able to share your produce and fruit making better use of it. I have a fantastic apple sauce tree (makes terrible pies the apples are too soft) but there is no way I could use all the fruit. It usually makes 60 to 80 jars of apple sauce and 20 to 30 jars of apple butter. The fruit ripens to early in the year to use them to make a good cider but it makes an OK wine. If you buy fruit or produce you may be able to buy in bulk and get a better price by splitting it. Lastly, when starting to can get a recent copy of the Ball Blue Book . I have seen it on sale next to the canning supplies in Wal-mart stores, used and new book stores.

portia mccracken
2/4/2009 11:58:02 AM

Per the National Center for Home Food Preservations: Regular glass jars break easily at freezer temperatures. If using glass jars, choose wide-mouth dual purpose jars made for freezing and canning; these jars have been tempered to withstand extremes in temperatures. If standard canning jars (those with narrow mouths) are used, leave extra headspace in liquid packs (3/4-inch for pints; 11/2-inches for quarts) to allow for expansion of food during freezing and completely thaw food before removing it. Do not use regular canning jars for foods packed in water.

daniel timm
1/23/2009 10:49:28 AM

Great article! Cooking beans and rice and other staples in bulk and freezing them in mason jars is a good way to have a quick healthy start to a dinner. Sauces can also be made this way. End of aisle displays, paired items like chips and salsa, are always "gimmick buys," and are never on sale. They are typically something the supermarket is trying to move due to channel discounts (e.g. the distributor or manufacturer is giving them a large discount, meaning that the grocery store makes a larger margin on it, or a greater percentage that they keep on a given sale). I also read a great article similar to this at Water Bottle People's website,