Rhode Island Red Chickens: Heritage Poultry Breeds

The Rhode Island Red chicken was originally a dual-purpose fowl, but the most common strains today are selected for egg production.


| July 2010





The Rhode Island Red was developed not by fanciers but by poultry farmers in the area of Little Compton, Rhode Island, beginning about 1830. From the beginning, the breeders’ goal was a utilitarian, dual-purpose chicken, not a show bird. They started with their own stocks, which were a blend of many breeds.

Three important types seemed to have had the greatest influence on the Rhode Island Red: Asiatics, Game, and Mediterranean. There are also early references to reddish colored Shanghais. At this time, the Asiatic Cochins and Brahmas were often confused and called by many descriptive names—Pootras, Chittagongs, Shanghais, and Cochin Chinas. These large birds contributed size and egg-laying ability. The upright red Malay Game was also an important contributor to the Rhode Island Red, giving the breed its deep color, hard feathers, and hardiness. The Malay itself, however, was never popular in North America. The Brown Leghorn also contributed excellent egg production. And there are suggestions of Cornish Game, Java, and Wyandotte in the Rhode Island Red.

The Golden Buff or Golden Red, as the breed was originally called, was first exhibited about 1879 but was bred in large numbers for practical uses before then. The single-combed Rhode Island Red was admitted to the Standard of Perfection in 1904, and a rose-combed variety was entered the next year. In the early years, it was common to see both rose- and single-combed birds in the same flock.

The Rhode Island Red is widely considered to be the most successful dual-purpose breed in North America, although the Barred Plymouth Rock is a close second. Exported to Britain and many other countries, the Rhode Island Red may be the world’s most widely distributed chicken breed. The breed is probably the best egg-layer of the dual-purpose chickens and has been widely used for that function, laying in the range of 250 eggs per year. It is not a meat specialist, but its size and conformation make for a good eating bird. Its dark-colored pinfeathers were definitely a handicap in its becoming a more popular market bird.

Because of its good production and other useful traits, the Rhode Island Red was one of the most successful and widespread farm flock birds for many years. It is long-lived, very hardy, and adaptable to all sorts of conditions or feed. Many, though not all, Rhode Island Red roosters are aggressive. The hens are usually quiet in disposition. Hens from the egg-laying strains are usually non-broody. The breed is Rhode Island’s official state bird.





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