Keeping Bees: Using the Top-Bar Beekeeping Method

Conventional methods of keeping bees are effective, but top bar beekeeping is simpler, less expensive, gives bees a greater degree of freedom, and still leaves you with honey and pollinated crops.

keeping bees - top-bar beekeeping

In top bar beekeeping, the comb must be handled carefully so it doesn’t break away from the bar.


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Beekeeping is a great hobby, whether you keep bees for pollination, honey, profit, medicinal uses, or all of the above. But getting started with bees can be expensive if you use conventional hives. A basic setup with bees can cost more than $200, and building conventional hives and frames is time-consuming. But there’s a simpler, less-expensive and more natural option: top-bar hives. The top-bar beekeeping method allows you to make simpler, inexpensive hives. Build them now and you can start keeping bees next spring.

In the top-bar system, you build simple box hives with slats (bars) of wood laid across the top, to which the bees attach their wax comb.

With growing concerns about colony collapse disorder and the resulting decline in the number of pollinators, gardeners might consider maintaining a top-bar hive of honeybees simply to increase vegetable and fruit yields through better pollination.

Top-bar beekeeping is for both urban and rural dwellers who want to keep bees on a modest scale, producing honey and beeswax. Above all, top-bar beekeeping is for people who love bees and understand and appreciate their role in the pollination of many wild and cultivated plants.

If your goal is to obtain the absolute maximum amount of honey regardless of all other considerations, top-bar beekeeping is not for you. This style of beekeeping can produce adequate amounts of honey, but the emphasis is on sustainability and keeping healthy bees rather than maximizing honey crops.

Natural vs. Industrial Beekeeping

Beekeeping does not have to be complicated. And you need none of the stuff in those glossy supply catalogs to keep healthy, happy, and productive bees.

Nearly all conventional beehives in use in the United States and Europe are similar. They consist of rectangular wooden boxes containing removable wooden frames holding preformed “foundation” for the bees to build wax comb on, plus a floor and a roof. The queen bee lays eggs in this comb, and the bees store some pollen (their protein source) and honey in the comb. Other wooden boxes, called “supers,” with (usually) smaller frames, are stacked on top to store most of the honey crop.

In some ways, this box-and-frame hive is right for the job — at least from the beekeeper’s point of view. It’s a simple matter to lift individual frames out of the hive to see what the bees are doing and, if you have a strong back, it’s relatively easy to remove the honey crop. The uniform shape of the honeycomb in the frames makes it easier to extract the honey with a centrifuge.

For the bees, however, this conventional system has several disadvantages. Bees naturally build comb in deep, catenary curves (the shape made by a chain or rope suspended by its ends). But the use of preformed foundation inside rectangular frames forces bees to build comb according to our requirements, not theirs. Bees prefer to adjust the size of cells according to their needs.

In a top-bar hive, the bees are encouraged to build their wax comb (which holds the cells they fill with honey or developing bees) from a thin strip of “starter wax” applied to the wooden bars, which simply rest across the top of the box that forms the hive. To extract honey from this wax comb, you crush it in a strainer and allow the honey to drain into a jar.

Top-bar beekeeping requires only one of the simple, versatile hives described below and a sharp knife. Instead of using a smoker to calm the bees when you open the hive to inspect bees or harvest honey, you can use a hand-held spray bottle containing water and, perhaps, a few drops of a mixture of essential oils or cider vinegar.

Top-Bar Hive Design

Top-bar hives have been used for thousands of years and are still popular in developing countries. I created a top-bar hive design with sloping sides and side entrances. The hive boxes are 36 to 48 inches long. The hives are 18 inches wide (outside measurement at the top) by 12 inches deep, measured at the ends. The trapezoidal shape is close to the natural shape of the comb. It’s strong and virtually eliminates attachment of comb to the sides of the hive — a useful feature for the beekeeper. This top-bar hive is simple to construct using inexpensive or recycled materials — just be certain the wood hasn’t been treated with chemicals that would harm the bees or you. For example, do not use green, pressure-treated lumber or lumber that may have been sprayed with a pesticide.

Bees build their wax combs from the bottoms of wooden bars that are 17 inches long, 1 3/8 inches wide and about three-quarter-inch thick. The bars rest on the upper edges of the sides of the hives, giving an internal width of 15 inches. A central groove, about one-eighth-inch deep, is cut along the length of each bar using a circular saw and is filled with molten wax to provide a guide and anchor point for the bees to build their comb. Alternatively, a strip of thin wood can be fixed along the center of the bar and rubbed with wax. Two inches on each end is left free of wax to discourage the bees from building comb attached to the sides of the hive.

The floor can be either solid or mesh, the latter being preferable in summer and hotter climates in general. The mesh allows ventilation and prevents the buildup of debris inside the hive. But it’s a good idea to have some method of closing the bottom of the hive during winter if your bees will be exposed to strong winds.

This long top-bar hive is strong, versatile and easy to build, even for someone with only basic woodworking skills. It’s also easy to manage. After the hive is in place, the heaviest lifting you will need to do is to remove the roof.

For free, detailed plans, see How to Build a Top-bar Hive.

Managing a Top-Bar Hive

In many ways, managing a top-bar hive is easier than managing a framed hive — but you can’t ignore the bees completely.

To get started, you can capture a swarm and put it in the hive or buy a package of bees (about $80) from a beekeeping supply company.

Sometimes, bees will naturally swarm to an empty top-bar hive and populate it. To attract a swarm to the hive, put it out during the swarming season, which is late spring through midsummer. Baiting the hive with a few drops of lemongrass oil will improve your chances of attracting a swarm.

The actual process of harvesting honey is simple: Take one comb at a time, cut it from the bar and replace the bar for the bees to build more comb. Take only a few bars of honey in summer, leaving a surplus for winter. Then harvest more the following spring after winter is over.

If you want at least some honey in liquid form, toss the comb into a stainless steel bucket, thoroughly mash it with a paddle, and strain it through muslin. But you probably won’t get all the honey out of the wax. To clean the wax, put it near a hive for the bees to reclaim any remaining honey. After they’ve cleaned it up, you can use the wax for candles or other projects.

— This article is excerpted from The Barefoot Beekeeper by Phil Chandler

Use Honey to Make Mead

If you keep bees, you can use some of the honey from your hives to make mead. Not many drinks can boast the long and illustrious history of mead — most likely the first fermented beverage known. When honey combines with water and yeast, a delightful reaction occurs. For the home-brewer, mead is one of the easiest wines to make. Traditional mead is a little on the sweet side, although it mellows with age. Learn more by reading the article How to Make Mead.

5/22/2014 5:59:35 PM

We collected a swarm for our top bar hive by placing a "swarm removal ad" on Craigslist. Our feral bees have been very healthy and we haven't used any chemicals in the hive. We provide a clean water source for our bees, and protect them from Argentine ants and yellow jackets. Be sure to leave all the honey for your bees the first year. Then take only a few bars in late spring, leaving a surplus for winter. Take one comb at a time, cut it from the bar and replace the bar for the bees to build more comb. New top bar beekeepers can find more information about the basics at: "Beekeeping with a Top-Bar Hive"

tim hammond
2/27/2013 7:31:28 PM

I actually have a top bar hive and can tell you I do nothing to help the bees. They stay out all winter with very little wind break in frigid Iowa. They survive on their own. They are even surrounded by pesticide ridden corn and bean fields. I take little more than a couple bars of honey from them each year, but they do a great job of pollinating.

robert krayer
1/25/2013 12:51:55 AM

I beg to differ on many of the 'positive' points to the top bar hive. First of all, these hives are considered to be a natural method of beekeeping. The only natural thing about these hives is the fact that the bees draw their own comb. (A Langstroth hive can be set up to draw natural comb too. Just don't put in foundation, only put in strips just like the top bar hive). The top bar hive is designed for the bees to move side to side through the winter. Honeybees naturally move up throughout the winter to consume foods to survive. The idea that the bees can draw a 'curved' comb in a top bar hive is false. Beekeepers use follower boards to FORCE the bees to draw straight comb up and down. According to the author this isn't natural. By state laws comb must be removable for inspection. So, twisted comb isn't going to allow an easy inspection. Some negatives to the top bar hive is the frustration of extraction, limited honey production, and comb easily breaking. If a beekeeper truly wants to run a natural hive then the Warre hive should be used. It's labor intensive to get started but it matches the natural development of a hive. I run 50 langstroth hives and find it much easier than any other type hive out there. The bees live fine within the hive and it's easy to cut down the size of the hive for winter preparation. I have one top bar hive for demonstrating when I teach beekeeping classes. I personally don't like them, but others love them. The top bar hive does have a big advantage over the Langstroth hive. If a beekeeper has a bad back or can't lift heavy things then the Top Bar Hive should be considered. And yes, a top bar hive can survive the winters here in the Philadelphia area.

grace sutherin
4/5/2012 1:22:34 AM

I am a bit behind-hand in the timing of my hive. The structure will be done this weekend (It's April 4 today) and I'm told that, here in Texas, the bees are swarming. . I plan on using raw linseed oil with a bit of beeswax melted in, and I just read today that this mixture might not be fully dry for weeks. Considering that it's a non-toxic mixture, can I invite the bees even before it fully dries? Thanks!

judith moran
7/22/2011 10:01:37 AM

@ glenda Lots of American hobby beekeepers (myself included) successfully overwinter bee in our top bar hives.

4/4/2011 6:13:24 PM

Great to know people are trying to support the bee populations. Warnings about the top bar hive, however. The top bar design orignates from research done in hot African conditions. If you live in the northern temperate regions, the challenge is overwintering the bees. The topbar only allows for about 20 pounds of honey, whereas a 2-3 box traditional method allows for at least 40-100 pounds. Bees need enough room to cluster over the winter to generate heat. I doubt the topbar hive could successfully overwinter in our cold climate.Also bees need enough food to get through the cold dark months. I seriously question the practicality of the top bar hive with one box for northern climates. The traditional Langstroth design is time-tested and allows for enough honey stores and space for natural organic beekeeping.

mike bokros
3/20/2011 11:53:58 AM

Looking for plans like it said in Oct/Nov 2009 page 53 for top bar hive design. Not on your pages where it should be?? Please let me know the answer via email. thank you

joey teem
12/2/2009 1:18:03 PM

Great article. I would just like to make one quick point. If you live the eastern US DON'T use the water and vinegar mix to spray your bees with. The Small Hive Beetle is attracted to the cider vinegar and the first thing you know your hive will be infested with them. I learned this the hard way. Joey Teem

10/5/2009 9:13:27 AM

PS I always use Champagne bottles and wire the corks. It is also necessary to be careful with Meads because they will fool you. Be very patient and wait until the yeast is clearly dormant. If you bottle your Mead too soon and do not keep it cold you may experience popping bottles. I have had a few actually pop with enough force that it could possibly have sent glass into my eyes had I been holding it when it popped. Be careful!

10/5/2009 8:55:06 AM

Regarding Mead. I have much experience fermenting various types of Honey Wines. My most favorite types are called Melomels and are a mixture of Honey and Fruit. I would suggest that for best results use Raw Honey that has not been heated or filtered but only strained. It is not necessary to pasteurize Honey so I do not heat it at all. I do boil the water vigorously for about 15 minutes and after is has been chilled (I use a brew chiller) to below 80 degrees F I add my Honey. It is my opinion that Meads made without heating the Honey turn out better after they have aged for at least a year. Be patient with your creations. I have made some Melomels that tasted awful after the primary fermentation that turned out to be truly wonderful wines. I only use glass carboys and always use Champagne yeast. I use 6 gallon glass carboys for primary fermentation so there is room for vigorous activity when the yeast "gets going" and then I transfer to a 5 gallon glass carboy for the secondary ferment. If you use fruit that is not acidic you will have to use a mold preventer such a Potassium Metabisulphite. I know that should open a "can of worms" about adding Sulphites to your wine but it is necessary to prevent molds from growing. if you want to avoid using "chemicals" then just use Honey. Keep in mind that after the sugar has been converted to alcohol the floral essences of the honey will provide you with some very interesting aromas and flavors. My most recent batch of Melomel is Raw Virginia Wild Flower Honey and Organic Medjool Dates. The recipe given in this article calls for quite a lot of Honey. I use a maximum of 15 lbs. per 5 gallon batch. I start with 12 lbs. and add an additional 3 lbs. to the secondary fermentation. My methods take quite a long time but when it is time to bottle the end result is something I am proud of. Incidentally, Aeration can be effectively accomplished with an aquarium pump and an aeration "

troy griepentrog_1
10/2/2009 4:37:37 PM

Hi, If you're having trouble downloading the plans on our site, you can find them on Scroll down to the section "Free beekeeping articles." Troy Griepentrog

maria l. becknell
9/30/2009 10:16:39 AM

I did what you said in your e-mail and I still get a blank screen for the Top-bar Hive plans. Now what do I do?

maria l. becknell
9/30/2009 10:06:03 AM

I am also having trouble getting the plans for your top frame hive. When I click on the link all i get is a blank screen. I really want to build this hive. How can i get these plans?

9/27/2009 10:10:19 PM

I tried clicking the link on "top-bar hive plans" and all I get is a blank page with that little square of primary colors. Is there another link that shows the plans? Thank you!