Growing Apple Trees Ecologically: A Guide to a Low-Spray Orchard

By choosing apple varieties and rootstocks adapted to your area's climate and pests, keeping trees healthy through good site selection, and using biological controls, you can grow high-quality, low-spray apples.

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In the old days, it was mainly in the form of hard cider that a family's apple crop could be made to last all year.
PHOTO: DAVID CAVAGNARO