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What is (a) Passive House?

By David White

Tags: Passive House,

Passive House is a specific approach to energy efficient homes, originating in Germany (Passivhaus). It has lead to far more units of housing, at lower energy consumption (verified by measurement), than for any other design movement in recent history. Estimates range from 6,000 to over 15,000 units built worldwide, with a handful completed in the United States so far, under the guidance of the Passive House Institute. The approach combines the Passive House Standard, which is the most stringent residential energy efficiency standard in the world, with the Passive House Planning Package, calculation software that accurately predicts the energy use of the proposed design while greatly simplifying the process.

Passive House Design Principles

Although the Passive House standard addresses a home’s total energy consumption, the core focus of its approach is to greatly reduce energy demand for heating. In Germany, heating is the bulk of the problem (as it is in most of the United States), and it’s the issue that building design can do the most about (as opposed to electricity consumption by appliances).

Passive House is not limited to one climate type, and recent efforts are expanding its application to cooling climates. Heating energy savings are achieved using simple passive solar design principles (in fact, much of the research behind Passive House was conducted on passive solar work in the United States). The basic measures are:

  • Superinsulation, with careful attention to eliminating weak spots (thermal bridges)
  • Extreme air tightness, at about one-third the air leakage of current U.S. best practice
  • Window selection and orientation for passive solar heating in winter
  • Mechanical ventilation with highly effective heat recovery

The use of these simple, passive measures means that a Passive House is quite affordable compared to its peers. It also means that it won’t “break.” In the event of an extended fuel outage, it will maintain survivable — if not downright comfortable — temperatures.

The Passive House Standard

The heating energy aspect of the Passive House standard is that the building shall demand no more than 15 kWh per square meter of heating energy annually (4.8 kbtu per square foot). Compared to existing housing in the Northeast, this is a savings of around 90 percent.

Why this metric? A common approach to making energy-efficient building more economical is to reduce heating needs to the point that some of the heating equipment can be eliminated, winning back some of the extra costs for insulating, air tightening, etc. This approach takes many forms, but the specific target for the original Passivhaus concept was to reduce the worst-case heating load to the point that it could be met simply by putting a small heater in the main supply duct of the fresh air ventilation system (not all Passive Houses are heated this way today). The outcome of meeting this target was that the annual heating energy demand of the house would end up around the 15 kWh mark. The resulting heating system is, in a typical German home or mid-20th century American home, equivalent in power to a small hair drier (or two small hair driers in a contemporary American home, ahem...)


David White practices consulting, design, and teaching on energy efficiency and related topics in buildings. He lives in New York City. You can contact him at


David White 


Look for additional blogs in the future when he'll write more specifically on a variety of topics related to Passive Houses. Do you have a topic you'd like him to cover? Suggest it in the comments section below.

scott v
2/15/2009 11:00:55 AM

Just a comment towards the energy star recomendation... last year wehad to upgrade our dryer and our freezer, less then a month apart. our research found nat gas to be much cheaper to operate a dryer on, from the electric one we had.... a chest freezer was recommended from our upright to keep our electric down..... using the 6 months pryer and 6 since for our evaluations... (consumption rates,not actual cost) our electric bill dropped $50 U.S., our gas went up 6.00 dollars.... a net savings of $44. U.S. I can only imagine the operating cost difference a whole house could make.

carolyn overbo
2/15/2009 10:05:38 AM

I'd like more information on passive cooling. Here, we only have 4 or 5 weeks (scattered over 5 months) where the low in less than 45 degrees, but the the summers get very hot. We often have 30 or more days in a row where the high is over 100 degrees. We can handle the cold with extra layers and our wood stove, but we are reluctant to give up our air conditioning.

dave k_1
2/13/2009 1:13:47 PM

I'd like to see information on DIY ways to harness water power. I have a creek that runs really good Feb-Jul and would like some ideas for harnessing it efficiently. I'd also like to see information on what I think is one of the best ways I've seen for becoming energy self sufficient. It's the process of converting solar energy into Hydrogen which can be stored (during bright summer days) in propane tanks and used at a later time (winter) via fuel cell technology. I don't understand why more research isn't being done on a massive scale in regard to making this technology mass marketable.

barbara gillihan
2/12/2009 3:54:29 PM

I wish there would be more discussion on passive solar. There have been some tv shows about it, but they usually use very expensive ideas that the normal consumer would not purchase. We built a cabin in the woods, 976 squ.ft with passive solar in mind. Just facing the correct direction and the placement of windows is something a builder could easily consider. Planting trees on the north, good insulating windows and energy star appliances are all ways to improve and conserve energy that are not too expensive, especially if done 1 at a time.

kerry d_2
2/12/2009 8:23:13 AM

I love this idea! I wish we would see our politicians supporting it. Is it possible to "retrofit" existing homes?

george works
2/12/2009 7:33:59 AM

I have just begun the process of building a passive house in Waterbury, CT as a gift for my son and his family. These houses require more care and precision to build but are not necessarily more expensive than other construction. They can provide huge reductions in imported oil, CO2 emissions and utility bills for the owner. And the indoor air quality is far superior to ordinary houses. Some of the techniques can also be applied in remodeling an existing home. If you are interested, visit the PHIUS web site.