Malcolm Wells: The Father of Earth-Sheltered Architecture

Building underground wasn't a new idea when Malcolm Wells happened upon it, but he codified the principles of earth-sheltered architecture that others now follow.

Malcolm Wells - Sidwell house exterior
Malcolm Wells built the Sidwell House near Beallsville, Ohio. Using passive solar heating, composting toilets and a graywater filtration system, it meets many of his 15 basic criteria for buildings.
John Morgan