Homesteading and Livestock

Self-reliance and sustainability in the 21st century.

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Bucks like this Nubian can be dangerous if they don't respect people. Photo Courtesy of www/ other day I went to see some bucks for sale. I have two of Oreo's daughters that I'm keeping, which means I have to find a new buck to breed them to get milk from them. This will be Oreo's third rut, which means he maybe has two more good years.

I looked around and found a possible buck. He was even a LaMancha. So, we went to look at him with the thought of getting him.

He was huge and in rut. Yes, Oreo is in rut, too, but not like this.  This buck had his horns and swung them around at me when he was annoyed. He came across as what I would consider a dangerous goat — if there can be such a thing.  It wasn't the bucky behavior — it was the lack of respect for humans.

What made his behavior worse was that there were at least five other intact bucks running around loose along with several does in season. Of course, the people didn't think that the younger bucks could breed their does (Oh, yes they can!) and the younger bucks were sure trying to. I guess they didn't believe in wethering bucks that they wouldn't use for breeding.

My husband now looks at Oreo in a different light. By comparison to this free buck, Oreo is a gentleman.  Sure, he's bucky, but then, that's what he is.  And I'm not concerned that he's going to hurt me.

I was interested in one of her younger bucks, but they haven't called me back, so it may be just as well.

Maggie Bonham is a multiple award-winning author of more than 30 books and the publisher of Sky Warrior Books. You can check out her blog Eating Wild Montana about her adventures with hunting, raising, and growing her own food in Montana.


Livestock Guardian Dog BreedSo we hear these questions nearly every day on LGD forums and Facebook pages and they go something like this - Can I use a Great Dane as a LGD? Or a St. Bernard? How about a heeler and Golden crossbred? My neighbor has some great pups that are a cross between a Great Pyrenees and an Aussie, so would they make a good LGD? We also see lots of dogs advertised as LGDs – but they aren’t.

Livestock guard dogs or LGDs are a group of similar dog breeds just like herding dogs or hunting dogs belong in their own groups. Being a LGD is not a job you can train any other breed to perform. Developed over centuries by working shepherds, livestock guard dog breeds possess a specific set of qualities and behaviors that make them excel at this very special work.

North American Livestock Guardian Dog Breeds

These are the only breeds of livestock guardians readily available in North America. Other breeds are used in different countries and may occasionally be found here as well. Nothing else is truly a livestock guard dog. 

  • Akbash Dog
  • Anatolian Shepherd Dog
  • Caucasian Mountain Dog
  • Central Asian Shepherd
  • Estrela Mountain Dog
  • Gampr
  • Great Pyrenees
  • Kangal Dog
  • Karakachan or Bulgarian Shepherd Dog
  • Komondor
  • Kuvasz
  • Maremma Sheepdog
  • Polish Tatra Sheepdog
  • Pyrenean Mastiff
  • Sarplaninac
  • Slovak Cuvac
  • Spanish Mastiff
  • Tibetan Mastiff
  • Tornjak 

What Makes a Breed a Livestock Guardian?

This is what is crucially important to remember – the livestock guard dog breeds have been selected for a very low or non-existent prey drive, a longer period of social bonding than many other breeds, and a physical appearance that suggests “friend.” They have also been selected for the essential traits of attentiveness, trustworthiness, and protection of their stock. LGDs are exceptionally nurturing and tolerant of their charges. LGDs also possess instinctual responses to first warn off threats rather than immediately attack. Successful owners take these natural LGD behaviors and carefully monitor and encourage them as their pup grows. These inborn traits can be so strong that some adult LGDs, who were never socialized with stock as puppies, will still make outstanding guardians – because of the strong and correct instinctual behaviors they possess. 

Due to their size and appearance, members of the public sometimes confuse LGDs with protection breed dogs. However, many LGD breeds have been tested by police, military and schutzhund trainers, who have repeatedly found them unsuitable because of their important lack of strong predatory behaviors. Conversely, this is why protection breeds do not make good LGDs – they have a strong predatory instinct. 

The inherited LGD traits are the reason why you can’t take a Lab or a Border collie or another non-LGD breed and easily train and trust it to behave properly as a livestock guard. The prey or chase drives in many breeds are just too high to make them reliable guardians. Some breeds are excellent watchdogs but lack the nurturing instincts a LGD exhibits towards its charges. Other breeds lack the protective coat to work outside in difficult weather. Still others do not possess the size, agility, or sense of responsibility to take on serious predators. These are also the reasons why crosses with a LGD and a non-LGD breed are just not reliable as working livestock guardians. The pups can certainly possess the traits of the non-LGD parent. Yes, many breeds make great all round farm dogs, but they should not be trusted or expected to live reliably with stock 24 hours a day.

If you are looking for a real livestock guard dog, which possesses ALL of these valuable traits, choose one of the recognized breeds or a cross between two LGD breeds. There is no better guardian of your flock or herd. To learn more about each of the different LGD breeds, check out the posts here and here


A big thank you to the Facebook communities Learning About LGDs, Livestock Guard Dog Project, and Big White Dog Working LGD Forum for their patient support of newbies and others to the wonderful world of livestock guard dogs! 

Jan Dohner is the author of Livestock Guardians: Using Dogs, Donkeys and Llamas to Protect Your Herd by Storey Publishing. Find out more about LGDs on her blogRare on the Farm, and follow @JDohner on twitter. She is also the author of The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds by Yale University Press.


This week was a lot of fence line and firewood work, fun with turkeys and my birthday on the farm (with a surprise guest).

Monday, July 28th

This week’s morning chore was working with the turkeys and the ladies of the Feathernet. At this point, we have two groups of turkeys, one older with fairly large birds and one of younger. While the others were preparing the nets for the new spot for one of the groups, I went up to feed and check on the older ones. This was when I got my first lesson in how to catch turkeys without getting your bell rung in the process. When I pulled up on the four wheeler, I noticed there were two turkeys out. Since wayward animals aren’t encouraged, I was trying to catch them to put them back in the net with their friends. I grabbed one, and they way I caught him left one wing free. This quickly led to my taking several turkey haymakers to the face. I wasn’t expecting the hit to be as hard as it was, which made it kind of funny. Not wanting to admit I had been beat up by a turkey twice, I grabbed the second one keeping both his wings to his body and was able to escape without further incident. We did have one bird that needed to be moved from this group to the other and after the wing incident, I decided to put my sweatshirt on the bird so should she decide to flap her wings while sitting on my lap on the four wheeler, they would be contained. I wish I had my camera because, while dressing up the bird had practical beginnings, she looked really cute in a hooded sweatshirt riding down the mountain and I would have liked to remember it better.

The afternoon was spent having a talk on water with Joel Salatin. I was really excited for this talk, as Dan and I have been trying to figure out the water situation back at Sugar River Farm. (For those of you who only recently started reading these posts, Dan is my fiancé and Sugar River Farm is the property we own in New Hampshire and the business we are building.) We know we need to build a few farm ponds, but wanted to wait until I had the chance to sit in on Joel’s water talk.

Joel’s talk was very inspiring, as Polyface’s water system is essentially built off some ponds, some ¾” and 1 ¼” pipe, and pumps. It is simple, straightforward, portable and inexpensive. Joel’s position, as is with many other permaculture experts, is that investing in water storage is extremely important. We learned two objectives. The first is that, ideally, surface water should never leave your farm. The second is that you should never end a drought with a full pond. Basically, if you need your water, use it! We learned about the many benefits of a farm pond and where they should be placed on your property (Per Joel, “Build more ponds.” I think Polyface should make a tee shirt that says that.), using cisterns, siphons and springs. We also learned very simple ways of how to move this water (mainly using pumps and the aforementioned plastic pipe). Joel has a great way of explaining how to do things in a very simple yet empowering way. I left feeling like building four ponds was entirely doable. The New Hampshire property also doesn’t have gutters (yet), and learning just how much water comes off the roof makes me excited to get back and get those gutters and rain barrels up!

Tuesday, July 29th 

After working with the turkeys and having the chance to move their shade structure with the tractor, Jonathan, one of the apprentices, talked me through using the forks on the tractor to pick up a giant log and bring it back to the farm to be used on the sawmill. I really appreciated him taking the time to show me how and letting me practice. The forks are such a useful implement and it’s pretty amazing what you can do and move with them.

The rest of the day was spent gathering firewood and chipping saplings and dead trees in part of Polyface’s woods. Polyface has a pretty active firewood business and they use the chips for animal bedding and composting. Those of you who are familiar with Joel’s books will remember the phrase ‘carbonaceous diaper’. We were on diaper duty! The carbon we are able to put back into the soil through the chips is so important and I completely understand why we spent so much time working on this.

Wednesday, July 30th

Wednesday was very much like Tuesday, aside from not needing to move the Gobbledego (the turkey shade structure) and the Feathernet. After chores, we went back to the woods and chipped and gathered firewood. I drove one of the larger older tractors with the wood trailer attached, and managed to get it stuck in a dip in the trail (the wood trailer was so heavy that once the wheels got in the dip, it was hard to get out). I was with Gabe, one of the other interns, and we used the bucket on one of the other tractors to push on the trailer while I drove the tractor in front and were able to get it out pretty easily. Situations like these have helped me to not get as flustered as I used to when things don’t go according to plan. Mistakes happen. Things get stuck. There is always a solution. If you don’t get all amped up about that an error was made, it is usually pretty easy to figure out what to do.

Thursday, July 31st

Size Matters Not

It isn't every day that you get to have your birthday at Polyface Farm, especially your golden birthday. I didn't know a golden birthday was a thing, but you learn something new every day. I turned 31 on the 31st, thus making this a golden birthday. And it was a wonderful day.

I started out by doing turkey and Feathernet chores by myself after being sent to the mineral shed to get turkey grit (more on the significance of this in a minute), set up new nets for the birds in anticipation of the next day’s moves, got caught in a rain storm and went to breakfast. My roommates were nice and thoughtful, giving me nail polish (it hides the dirt under your nails) and a tee shirt, since our clothes get stained so easily. When I went back, Tim and Erik (my intern friends from the Week Two post who sing while they work) asked me to go to the mineral shed to get dog food for Michael, Polyface’s guardian dog. I thought this was odd since I thought the dog dish was already filled, but I love Michael, so I went in only to find they had made a gift basket out of an egg basket and filled it with candy and a tee shirt that had Yoda on it and said “Size Matters Not”. They had put it in there prior to my going in to get grit and I completely missed it in my early morning stupor. I guess all the boys were watching to see what I’d think of the gift and were all confused when I came out expressionless and basketless. This was a big basket prominently placed so I don’t quite know how I missed it. I was very touched as I am usually apologizing to them for not being able to lift as much as they can, so the shirt had special meaning to me.

We spent the rest of the morning and some of the afternoon collecting firewood, chipping and cleaning up along a new fence line we’re making at one of the Polyface rental properties. Later that afternoon, Daniel Salatin pulled me and another intern to head back to the farm to start chores while the others finished up. I was in the middle of giving my broiler friends their evening water when turned around and saw Dan standing there. He had driven twelve hours to surprise me on my birthday. Daniel and Sheri Salatin were in on it and Dan was invited to have dinner with all of us. Our cook had made me lasagna (she lets us pick a dinner when it’s our birthday) and a cake. I am grateful for all the people who came out of the woodwork and sent me cards and packages from home, to the Salatin's for letting Dan come visit and keeping it a secret and to Dan for visiting. It was a great day.

Friday, August 1st

Friday ended up being a rainy day, so after morning chores, we set up more nets for the birds, did some odds and ends around the farm, such as gathering weeds for the piglets (they love greens) and watched while Daniel, Jonathan and some of the others took apart part of the tractor. A very solid looking steel part had snapped in half while they were using the tractor to push wood chips up and needed to be removed.

After lunch, a few interns, Daniel and I went to one of the Polyface rental properties to move some broiler shelters and finish tarping some of the large bales of hay from the other week. The way we move the shelters here takes four people and a flatbed trailer, but could be done on a smaller scale if necessary. We have one person per corner and move the shelters three at a time. It can be heavy work, but I was with strong people so the time went by quickly.

When we got back, I was excused from dinner so I could spend some time with Dan. After not seeing him for two months, I was excited to see him.

Saturday, August 2nd 

Saturday was Dan’s behind the scenes tour of Polyface Farm. He has heard so much about it from me, so t was fun to show him around. The farm he worked at last year has many systems modeled after Polyface methods, but I think it’s important to see the original source of the ideas, if you can. One of the most heartening things about Polyface Farm and the Salatins is that they pride themselves on portable, reproducible systems that are easily implemented. If there is a cheaper, simpler, faster way to do something, that’s what they will do. Efficiency and practicality are king here. There are no unnecessary bells and whistles or flashy expensive equipment. Polyface’s way of farming can be done by those of us without lots of starting capital and they are very transparent about how they operate. As new farmers starting a business, it’s a relief to see simple affordable methods are still used at Polyface Farm, even with their fame, because they work.

I hope you all are enjoying your summer. Next week, some of us will get the chance to can, which is a new skill I’m excited to learn. See you all next week!


Slowly the cellar hole takes shapeIt was a Saturday in mid-July when we started on our root cellar. A few days prior I had gone out with loppers in hand and cut back the brambles and cherry sprouts that were hiding the old cellar hole. Having caved in on all but the east side, and having spent decades filling in with rocks, tree limbs, humus, and leaves, it was more of a chaotic depression in the ground than a cellar hole.  

But a cellar hole is what we hoped to make of it.  With shovels, rock bars, and a pick axe, Ryan and I, joined by our friend Chris (who deserves all manner of accolades for his role in this), faced the site. With a bountiful garden expanding every year, we needed a reliable way to store  winter crops — potatoes, carrots, turnips, beets, and cabbage. Onions, garlic, and squash could safely be stored indoors, but the others needed a cool, damp place to last until the spring. A root cellar was essential, and with no means to bring machinery to the property, our only option was to dig it by hand. We hoped that choosing the old cellar site would give us an advantage for easy digging, but we knew better than to be too optimistic.

Thus, for the better part of one very hot day, we shoveled dirt, axed roots, pried, dug, and rolled rocks, and extricated old bricks and the usual assortment of pottery and metal objects.  We made great headway, but it was also clear how much more we had to do.  The mess of boulders from the collapsed north wall had yet to be dug and removed, and a number of large rocks on the “floor” would require a borrowed griphoist to get out.  Not to mention that the hole would have to be squared out to approximately 11’ x 7’ (cellar will be roughly 10’ x 6’) and dug down another foot or so.

Stumps, rocks, and dirt!

But then, the summer got busier than we could keep up with.  Ryan and I spent an afternoon moving rocks, but other than that we had to let it sit as other duties took our time and energy. Until now.  With Ryan away, and a weekend to myself at home, the root cellar beckoned.  I gave some time to the garden, and some to splitting and stacking wood, but it was with enthusiasm - and a bit of trepidation - that I finally climbed my way into the hole.  Shovel by shovelful, I dug my way deeper. Bent buckles, rusty nails, machine parts, broken plates, a twisted fork, layers of ash and brick; I was digging our future through another family’s past. There were plenty more rocks - big rocks! - and I levered them out as I found each in turn. A few still remain for which I’ll need the griphoist to move.

It was cloudy, but humid, and I was sweating hard even as my progress was slow. Head down, my world became the hues of grays, browns, blacks, and burnt umbers that defined the layers of dirt, humus, sand, ash, charcoal, and brick shards that I worked through. Though not yet done, I called it a day as my arms grew weary and my stomach rumbled for dinner. Clambering out of the site, I chuckled, somehow surprised to see the pinks, whites, yellows, oranges, and bright greens of the garden. Though thinking of winter and the need to store and preserve all the edibles we can, I was reminded that the verdant beauty of summer is still strong.  Hopefully we’ll have enough time through this autumn to complete the cellar, a little treasure box that will hold the prizes of the summer all through the winter.

the garden that greeted me

Garden work is my specialty!  Weeding, planting, mulching and pruning services available, plus edible landscapes and garden designs. Contact Beth via for your annual, perennial, herbal, or ornamental garden needs (see Business Directory listing under ‘Garden Design & Services’).


soaps in the making

Value-Added Producer Grant

We Got The Grant – Wooooohooooo – Oh Boy – Now What? You may remember my blog from February 25th of this year. These were my closing sentences: “Looking back after a week, I have to admit, the experience was worth it. It made me assess and think through my project. The feeling of finally submitting this grant application was awesome. If, through some miracle, we receive it, it will be just absolutely fabulous. If we don’t, we haven’t lost anything, except for some sleep. My advice, if you are really, really, really serious about your chances, hire a grant writer, especially if it’s kidding season.”

So, around the end of May, our USDA area office told us that ours was one of two grants in Florida that was sent on to the national level. We were told: “That is really good news, but don’t get your hopes up, the national level is really competitive”. We were thrilled anyway.

Well, we got the news yesterday with a call from Florida’s Senator Nelson’s office: “We are calling to congratulate you on receiving the USDA Value-Added Producer Grant!”

“What, wait, no way, really?” Wowowowowowow. Happy Dance. Happy Dance. Happy Dance.

I looked it up on-line and sure enough, there it was in black and white: Serenity Acres! Only farm in Florida to receive one of the USDA Value Added Producer Grants. Wow again.

All the Different Colors

Marketing Homemade Soaps

So, where do we go from here? There is a serious, if exciting side to this. We received the grant to finance a rebranding and marketing campaign with Pulp & Wire, a PR company, for our farm and our goat's milk soap, including our other body care products, so we can go national and strive for financial sustainability of the farm. This is a matching grant, so we do have to put in some money and not a tiny amount either. Of course, there is the commitment we need to make in time and effort to see this project through once we start down this path. The question we have mulled over and over, before and after submitting the grant is “Are we ready?” The answer, with butterflies in our stomachs, is a resounding “YES”. Too many things could have gone wrong, sideways or off-track, but they didn’t and a door to a new future has been opened. Has it? We will find out! We are marching through it, heart in our throats, because if we didn’t, we would always ask ourselves, what if?

soaps curing

We are passionate about our goats, about our farm, and about our soaps. We love the fact that the soaps are all-natural, good for your skin, and have a scent that stays around and around. It makes us happy when we have interns and friends, who have not been able to use soaps because of eczema and other allergies, tell us that our goat milk soap is the first soap they can use.

Goat's Milk Soap Benefits to Skin

Here is the Why! Hand-crafted goat milk soap nourishes your skin instead of stripping the oils from it. It still contains the glycerin to soften your skin. Commercial soap typically has all its glycerin stripped out for use in cosmetics. Goat’s milk soap also contains caprylic acid, making the soap an alkaline product with a low pH that is close to that of human skin. This allows the moisture and nutrients to be delivered to the skin and prevents dryness and other allergic reactions. Goat’s milk soap also contains lactic acid, an alpha hydroxy acid which is commonly included in skin rejuvenation products. Alpha hydroxy acid helps to remove dead skin cells, leaving the skin surface smooth and clean. And of course, hand-made goat’s milk preservatives. If you don’t believe me, read the ingredient label of your commercial bar of soap. Chances are you won’t even be able to pronounce two-thirds of the ingredients.

Enough, I’m coming off my soap box, pun intended.

Stay with us and accompany us through this adventure. Take a look at our current websites, and Take a look at our products, our packaging, and like our Facebook page “Serenity Acres Farm and Goat Dairy”. Walk with us through this change into a new future. Who knows, you might even be able to say, well, I knew them when….. LoL. Pictures, by the way, were taken by our friend Joe Sands.

So Long, till next time

A Goat Friend


Beef cattle grazing in field

As a farmer and a writer, I often use this column as a way to work out something I’ve got stuck in my craw. Today that’s the burden of beef.

I recently listened to one of my favorite radio programs, Living on Earth. There was a segment where the host, Steve Kerwood, interviewed one of my favorite young writer/activists, Anna Lappé. Anna and Steve had a very interesting and informative conversation about the environmental impacts of a system that puts steak and burgers atop the American diet.

Their discussion was a good one, and most HOMEGROWN readers could follow along closely. If you’re like me, you understand that we live in a world where resources are constrained. You’re deeply concerned about building ecologically resilient communities and about unequal access to clean water and decent places to live. You’re probably in favor of ethical, humane treatment of livestock and wildlife. You probably believe that giant industrial feedlots are disgusting and problematic on many levels.

I share these concerns and feel strongly about the need to transform the food system. I think Americans eat too much meat and that conventional beef production is a disaster.

Beef cattle grazing under a cloudy sky

But still, here on this farm, beef cattle is the main economic engine that keeps the farm up and running — well, that and my father’s good union job at a power plant. We raise cattle, and so do so many other farmers in our region, because cows are profitable most of the time, they’re relatively easy to keep, and there is an entire infrastructure that supports our production. We can find vets to help us when we encounter illness. We have markets for our calves. We can find hay (we grow our own but can locate more if necessary) and grain to supplement feeding, as needed. We can find people to come out and haul the cattle if we can't do it ourselves.

Beef cows are born on mostly smallish farms. They spend half of their lives here. Yes, they end up in feedlots and in the messy industrial behemoth of the Western Plains. But they are born here, right across the fence from where I'm writing these words.

These beef herds pay the mortgages for the farms all around me. They also share the land with us human animals, as well as with a variety of wildlife. Cattle production is compatible here with the many species I see every day: songbirds, hawks, herons, squirrels, rabbits, deer, woodchuck, mice, wild turkey, raccoons, snakes, coyotes, frogs, and countless varieties of insects. Cows do use resources, but they also leave plenty of room for the other creatures I like to see around the place. (I might be in the minority when I say this, but I’d also welcome bears, elk, wolves, mountain lions, and other species that were native before Europeans arrived in North America. Yes, even the predators.)

At the end of the day, when we consider biodiversity in a working landscape, we have to take into account the reality of economics. Cows pay the bills.

I’m not trying to shill for the beef industry. I don’t think raising cattle is the answer to most questions. I feel strongly that people should eat more veggies and less meat (and less sugar). I make no presumption that the current beef feedlot system is anything other than an enormous mess that taxes human health and the environment, especially when it comes to the problem of greenhouse gasses and a disrupted climate.

Beef cattle at sunset

But it seems to me that, strictly in terms of a sellable agricultural product, beef is one thing we can raise on a part-time, beginning-farmer basis that doesn’t rapidly and wildly damage the ecology. We already live in a region transformed by human impact. That’s the canvas we have to work with.

This is not so much an argument with Living on Earth or Anna Lappé. Anna might even agree with me that, done right, beef production can be part of a multifunctional landscape populated by diversified family farms. We just have a lot of work to do if we want beef production to improve and to minimize harm.

But if the decision is between corn and soybean monoculture or a herd of herbivores in the pasture just over the fence, I’ll take the beef cow any time. How about you?

Now let's get to work on a system where those aren’t the only options.

This post originally appeared on

Bryce Oates is a farmer, father, writer, and conservationist in West Missouri. He lives and works on his family’s multi-generational farm, tending cattle, sheep, goats, and organic vegetables. His goals in life are simple: to wake up before the sun, catch a couple of fish, turn the compost pile, dig potatoes, and sit by the fire in the evening, watching the fireflies mimic the stars.


Grass-Fed and Pasture-Raised Meat 101
Farmer Bryce on 
why water is a privilege
Farmer Bryce on
 deer season
Farmer Bryce on
 beef near you



Week Eight. My goodness, we’re about half way through the internship. This week was a lot of wind down/clean up from Field Day, profound permaculture lessons and setting up all kinds of birds in all kinds of spots. 

Monday, July 21st

As you can imagine, after having about 1,800 visitors to the farm on Saturday and being somewhat catatonic on Sunday, there was a lot to clean up on Monday. My morning chore for this week was to feed and water my broiler buddies, so after that was done, we all set to dismantling everything Field Day. Down came the cinder block BBQ pit, vendor tables, the 700+ bales of hay we set out as seating (Those went up actually, to the hay loft.), rental tents and other assorted items. After the barn was cleared up, we set up gates, waterers, bedding and feeders for the new piglets due in later in the week.

After lunch, I went with Gabe, another intern, to one of the Polyface managed properties to set up one of the Eggmobiles that had been shut down in the spring. Whoever shut it down prior had done a good job, as no major repairs were necessary and they even left some hay behind for us to put in the nest boxes. The only things we needed to bring back were bottoms for some of the nest boxes, where the old ones had rotted out, along with some feeders, but we didn’t need to do that until the end of the week when the new birds came.

We did stop working a bit early on Monday to be able to go to Charlottesville for a talk by Darren Doherty of Regrarians about their vision for regenerative agriculture. I had mentioned Darren and his wife Lisa Heenan in last week’s blog post, but in case you missed it, Darren and Lisa have a company, HeenanDoherty, providing consulting services for whole landscape plans for properties. They are also working on a documentary, Polyfaces, which is expected to debut this fall. In any case, their talk was packed and very inspirational. Their passion for pragmatic solutions towards issues of sustainability, capturing water runoff, keyline water systems and climates, both economic as well as locational, were extremely helpful. I highly recommend checking out their website to see what they’re all about. They are doing a lot to advance our cause and the more people who know about them and their documentary Polyfaces, the better.

Tuesday, July 22nd

Tuesday was the first time I’d ever helped with the Buying Club load up at Polyface. After feeding and watering the broilers, Brandon, another intern, and I went to the sales building where the morning project people had pulled out crates of meats according to the order sheet given by our inventory manager. Buying Club load up is really fun. Jackie, one of Polyface’s office super stars, sits at her computer generating invoices and calls out to us what needs to be put in the coolers. As an example, “One Boston Butt! Two ground beef! Five whole broilers and one Freedom Ranger!” Brandon and I, under the supervision of both Jackie and our inventory manager, disperse and assemble the order. When there is one item, the weight is usually listed on the label and we read this to Jackie so the item can be properly invoiced. A category with more than one item are weighed and the total given to Jackie. We then let Jackie know which cooler the order went in and she lets us know which drop off location it is meant for. We then organize accordingly and put the coolers in the freezer so they are ready for delivery. At times, it was hard to remember everything on the order, so it was good to work with another person. I had a good time doing load up though. We have been spending so much time raising the animals and doing preparation work for their processing and sale, so it’s good to be coming full circle. I love to sell things, so I’m excited to learn this part of Polyface’s business. There were a lot of orders for this week, so putting these together took the entire morning.

calfAfter lunch, we went and gathered firewood (another arm of Polyface’s offerings) and moved cows to sort the heifers from the steers. I was given the opportunity to lead the herd down the hill to the sorting pens, so I opened the gate, steeled my resolve and attempted a cattle call. Apparently it was well received because the cows started running and I had to sprint to keep ahead of them. When we finished, a few of the other interns were wondering why we all had been thundering down the hill, but I didn’t really have an answer. All I know is, if the cows get ahead of you, there is no leadership and that’s a problem. I’d really prefer there not be cattle anarchy on my watch.

We also had a few night projects this week with regards to the birds. Monday’s project was to meet at the pullet shelters once it was dark, gather up the birds and put them in crates. They are getting older and are starting to lay eggs, so they are being promoted to living in an Eggmobile. We were splitting up the flock between two different properties, so following our covert pullet snatching operation, we split into two groups and set off to take a group of birds to their new spot. The reason we catch birds at night is because they are so fast, thus making it very difficult to catch on such a large scale during the day. They are much more docile at night and one can fairly easily catch one without too much noise and chaos. Once we got to the new Eggmobile, we unloaded the birds, put them in to sleep and shut them in for the night. Mission accomplished.

Wednesday, July 23rd

Besides being my mother’s birthday (Happy birthday, Mom!), Wednesday was another processing day. During today’s processing, I did my usual swing position between lunging, quality control and gutting. After all the birds were done, Daniel taught me and a few other interns how to part out the birds, which I’m really excited to have learned. Not only is it a good skill to utilize for upselling product, but it’s a general life skill I felt I needed. I now know how to cut the wings and legs off a bird, plus remove the breast and tenderloins. At this point, this takes me a while, but Daniel did it in 44 seconds. I’m looking forward to getting more practice. Daniel mentioned that if more American families knew how to do this, the savings would be in the hundreds of dollars over the course of a year. Generally, buying a whole birds costs way less per pound than just buying breast meat, so this makes sense.

Thursday, July 24th

Thursday morning was dedicated to setting up the baby broilers in the Ridge Field behind Daniel’s house. There were already some shelters there that we had dropped off a few weeks ago, but we also needed to use the flatbed trailer to transport the other twelve that had been used by the pullets as of Monday. Moving the shelters, while it was a good amount of lifting, was a lot of fun. Seeing projects get done is very satisfying to me. In any case, we moved about 24 shelters to the Ridge Field while another team of interns did repairs, set up waterers and feed and gathered chicks and put them out in their new abodes. The birds always look so excited running around in grass for the first time (The brooder, the bird nursery, has a sawdust floor) and it’s funny to watch them look at bugs and try to peck at them.

In the afternoon, we went to one of the properties Polyface manages to move cows along with the Polyfaces film crew. They are so much fun to be around and the footage they got was really beautiful. There was a thunderstorm minutes away as we were trying to get the cows to their new spot, so this made for some scenic backdrops against the thundering of hooves. Said thunderstorm arrived right after the filming was done and we ended up waiting out most of the rain in the truck.

That night, our job was to train the Eggmobile. I had never heard of such a thing, but now it makes perfect sense. Since the birds at the Eggmobile are free ranging hens, they need to learn to sleep inside the Eggmobile at night. This is to ensure they don’t get picked off by predators while they’re sleeping and so they can be shut in at night to be moved in the morning on moving days. A lot of them like to go under the structure and roost in the axle or on the wheels and some like to sleep on the ground near the Eggmobile. As interns, we split up with some of us going under the Eggmobile to shoo out birds who try to get under, some rounding up rogue birds and some making sure there isn’t a bottleneck of hens going up the ramp to get inside. This was the first night these girls were ever trying to get inside, so there were some funny attempts by the hens to fly up to the door and not quite making it. It took a while to get everyone inside because a lot of the hens were confused, but it wasn’t their fault. They’re just learning.

Friday, July 25th

Friday was a special treat. After chores, we learned that we were going to get to spend the day with Joel’s brother, Art, and his wife Donna as they processed honey from their hives. I had mentioned last week that Art is a talented apiarist, and we have all been hoping to get to watch him work with the bees, so as you can imagine, the news of working with Art and Donna was very well received by the interns. Art explained to us how he opens the hives, determines how much honey each hive needs to get through the winter and how to store the honey filled frames as to not encourage hive robbing. (I learned that bees can smell honey and if they get the word out that honey is available, there can be pandemonium. Bee pandemonium is not cool.) We spent the morning watching and helping Art while he gathered frames, then went to his processing area, learned how to use a hot knife to remove the comb from the frames and put them in an extractor. I’m not familiar with the range of extractor options, but Art’s extractor is stainless steel, has slots that hold the frames and spins them using centrifugal force to release the honey. The honey then gets strained into a food grade bucket with a spigot, which we use to put the honey in jars. Luckily, finger licking was encouraged and Art and Donna were kind enough to give us some honey to take home.

That night was Round 2 of Eggmobile training. This went much better as some of the birds had caught on. I ended up under the Eggmobile shooing out the hens and I was getting a boot out of how offended the hens act when you tell them to get out. They ruffle their feathers indignantly, squawk at you while giving you a look of utter disapproval then run away in a huff. I love them.

Saturday, July 26th

On Saturday, Allan Savory of the Savory Institute visited Polyface. This was a big honor and very exciting for the interns, as Allan is one of the brightest minds with regards to holistic management in the world. As part of the filming of Polyfaces, we were able to have a small cookout and sit down with Allan. Out of respect for Polyfaces, I won’t delve too deeply here into what Allan discussed should they be using it for their film, but prior to his speaking, Joel pointed out that having Allan to the farm was a very special opportunity for the interns present and he was right. While waiting to sit down and eat, I scanned the small crowd, saw Joel Salatin, Allan Savory and Darren Doherty, among others, and it hit me how lucky I am to be a Polyface intern. I was about to eat burgers in Joel’s backyard with some of the best ecological minds in the country. My cup runneth over.

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