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Self-reliance and sustainability in the 21st century.

Basic Considerations for Rotational Grazing of Pigs

Pastured Pigs In Missouri Field

The maxim “pigs cannot eat grass” has never been adequately explained to my pigs. Maybe they are rebels — black and red porcine pirates chowing down the ocean of green grass that they swim through. Maybe they live to confound agricultural experts. Maybe they delight in doing what is expected to be impossible. Or perhaps they are just carefree opportunists, filling their bellies from a great diversity of feedstuffs which nature (through the guiding efforts of their farmer) provides.

Of the many strategies we have employed over the last five years, my old standby has been grazing permanent pasture. Whether you choose to reduce your grain ration or not, this will be the foundation of your pasture-based pig operation: Taking care of your permanent pasture by way of rotational grazing.

Like many topics, pasture management is as simple or as intricate as we make it. Books have been written on this topic and we will not pursue it to the smallest fractal of knowledge here. In the broadest of brush strokes, we may start by saying animal impact on your pasture can be positive (soil- and grass-building) or negative (soil- and grass-harming).

Beyond that statement, though, we find a rather fluid world of timing. Creating positive animal impact on a pasture system is sort of like baking cookies: Take them out too quick and you don’t get what you were imagining. Leave them in too long and you’ve made a mess that will take some time to clean up.

Encouraging grass production through animal impact is much the same.

Paddocks for Rotational Grazing of Pigs

Our basic unit of pork production is 12 pig groups. These groups are pastured in paddocks that are 50 meters by 30 meters. These are generally rectangular with step-in fence posts every 10 steps (roughly 10 meters).

We place three open-ended pig hutches in the paddock with the pigs. These structures have a curving metal roof, 4-by-4 wooden runners, and no floor. These hutches serve as rain and sun shelters and are moved every day within the paddock. This is done to ensure we do not over impact the grass under them and under impact the grass in other places — we simply line them up side by side and pull them forward 6 feet by hand each evening.

Feeding Regime of Grass, Grain, and Food Scraps

The same care is taken of where we feed the pigs. Yes, pigs will eat copious amounts of grass, but unless you have excellent genetics, you will still need to supplement with something. That something can be apples, pears, food scraps, pumpkins, turnip greens, broccoli or cabbage stems, old tomatoes, watermelons, waste dairy and eggs, etc.

We still keep several barrels of grain on hand for when Mother Nature throws us a curve ball or for when time is just running short.

Water Considerations

Wherever you feed you homestead pigs will need to change, as the pigs will grub the grass down pretty hard where you feed them. The one object that does not move until the paddock is rotated is the waterer.

In order to minimize impact here, we put the water source in a corner (so they have a hard time pushing it around without touching the fence) and place it on top of an old sheet of plywood. Without the plywood, they will splash water out just for fun and then stamp a mud hole, which will grow less nutritious weeds next year.

It takes between 3 and 5 days for a group of 12 pigs to impact the 1,500 square meters in a positive way.

If you succeed in managing your pigs in this way for perhaps 5 months after weaning, you may notice strange things happening on your farm the next year: The grass might be twice as thick. You might notice more wildlife utilizing this richer environment. Perhaps you will feel quite clever, knowing that you have sequestered enough carbon to make a small difference in the world.

But this much I will promise you — when you sit down to breakfast and find a sizzling plate of bacon in front of you, there will be a sense of satisfaction there that is hard to find at the store.

John Arbuckle aims to change the trajectory of modern pig farming by demonstrating that a thinly wooded pasture, when managed well, can sequester tons of carbon, support lots of family farmers, create the most nutritionally dense pork and nurture an army of coyotes, owls, frogs, worms, bobcats and happy children. Find him at Roamsticks and Singing Prairie Farm, and follow him on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

Planning for Spring

Spring is making its way to farms and homesteads around the country.  Some of my Southern friends are already planting their first vegetables, but here in Maine the ground is still blanketed in thick snow.  But with temperatures on the rise and each day getting longer, it is time to start planning for summer.

I spend a lot of time in the winter with a notebook and seed or hatchery catalogs, and still more time with graph paper laying down ideas.  It is one way to take advantage of those days when going outside hurts your face, and it is a certain way to ensure that we can jump on our goals as soon as the ground is workable.


To start, we plan what new animals might be joining the farm in the spring.  Some animals are ordered or brought home from breeder’s, others will be born right here on our farm.  It’s good to decide what we’re bringing home now.  Often the first step to adding a new animal is building them suitable shelter, and we need to know what building projects to get started on.  Home births require research and supplies, and often the task of playing matchmaker.

When it comes to adding animals, we don’t go about it willy-nilly.  It’s true that cute figures into my thinking, but practicality rules the roost.  What animals will reward us with the most food, or be able to help us work our land?  Which ones require the least in terms of additional investments in buildings?  Or, if a farm animal requires a whole new pasture and barn space, how is it going to help us recoup our investment?


This year, since we’re already set up for chickens, geese, ducks, and goats, we’re not planning on adding any major livestock.  We’ll expand our existing flocks, but we are not adding any new species.

Once we’ve decided what we are doing for animals in the spring, we plan out their housing requirements and place our orders.  When ordering animals, whether from a local breeder or a hatchery, I spend plenty of time doing internet research and asking my farming friends about the reputation of the breeder or hatchery and the quality of stock they’ll provide.  It does not make sense to invest in sub-par stock.  Housing and pasture space is laid out so that when the ground thaws, fence posts can go in right away and interior barn work can be done while the snow is still flying.

Finally, it is time to look at the land.  I have ear-marked seedling catalogs from months ago, and I like to make lists of new plants to try out.  When working with graph paper to lay out the garden, I trim those lists down to manageable options for the year.  Paying close attention to a plant’s growing preferences and the amount of light different areas of our vegetable garden will get, I also think about what my family prefers to eat.  And finally, I think about what we’ll be canning and preserving versus what we’ll eat fresh off the vine.


For our farm the garden is not yet a source of all of our food.  We are not quite self reliant.  But each year, as we plant more of our favorites and try new recipes, we get closer to that goal.  We also think about other ways to improve self sufficiency, such as expanding the herb garden to include more spices and potential home remedies.  Each new plant gets its due diligence in research, and I’m glad I enjoy reading and researching as much as I do.

There’s one last thing to think about, and that’s how the plants and animals may interact.  For example, our fencing plans this year include laying a sturdy fence around the vegetable garden.  We don’t want to take any risks that our food will end up being eaten by goats or geese before we can enjoy it.  

Once the seedling orders have been placed, I lay out a calendar marked with planting dates and transplant dates.  Onions can start being sown indoors now, while the saying goes to transplant your tomatoes outside after Memorial Day in our area.  Armed with this calendar, planting the garden doesn’t seem as daunting.  It’s broken up into manageable weekly chunks, and each week brings a new an exciting step towards our summer bounty.

There’s not much time to rest in the winter on a farm.  When you’re not breaking ice for animals or shoveling pathways, it’s all about planning.  But at least that summer planning allows you to daydream of plucking ripe tomatoes off the vine, enjoying the feel of summer sun on your skin. 

Kirsten Lie-Nielsen is rebuilding a 200-year-old homestead in rural Maine, using geese for weeding and guarding purposes, raising chickens for eggs, bees for honey, and maintaining vegetable gardens for personal use. Find Kirsten online at Hostile Valley Living's site, Facebook page, and Instagram, and read all of her MOTHER EARTH NEWS blog posts here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

9 Reasons Why Raising Ducks Might Be a Better Option Than Chickens


Many folks these days are keeping backyard chickens in suburbs, on homesteads or even in city-based coops. If you don't have a few chickens of your own by now, you probably know someone who does. Many of us have a desire to reconnect with our food and the agricultural foundation of our country as well as to do nifty "green" things like keeping a few farm animals around. But have you ever considered ducks as an alternative to chickens to fulfill these duties? These fine feathered friends often have even more advantages than the now-common backyard chicken.

Duck Eggs are Larger, More Cost-Efficient, Less Likely to Cause Allergic Reactions

In general, duck eggs are larger than the average chicken egg. Some breeds of ducks can lay consistently for a longer period of time than chickens. Remember, you're feeding these birds that feed you, so you'll want to consider which is the better investment. Many people these days seem to be developing egg allergies; in some cases, duck eggs can be a viable alternative.

Tasty Meat

Ducks are a delicacy in most areas, commanding top dollar at fine restaurants. It takes about two to four months to raise ducks for meat, which is shorter than most meat chickens. The fat from ducks is wonderful for cooking and baking. In addition, you'll know that your meat was raised in healthy conditions with good feed and limited or no exposure to harmful chemicals or medications. Ducks also contain significant nutrients compared with other common meats.

Ducks Prefer Simple Homes

Happily laying ducks that have plenty of food, water and friends are easy to keep together. Building a two-foot high inexpensive pallet fence is an easy and efficient way to keep them contained. If you let them free range in the daytime, ducks can be herded back to their coop quickly. Ducks also do not need any sort of perch or nest boxes. Simply give them plenty of clean straw, and they will happily make their nest in the corner and find a comfy spot to sleep at night.

Since ducks have an oil gland in their tail that produces waterproofing oils when they splash water on themselves, it is important for them to have some water to bathe. A kiddie pool is an easy and inexpensive way to provide a clean water source for bathing and preening.

Be sure to provide adequate ventilation for your ducks as they carry so much moisture on their bodies. You'll want to be sure that their homes are free from mold and mildew growth.

Ducks Love Weeds and Pests

It is true that chickens gobble up certain insects and pests, but they don't get the large slugs and snails that ducks love. All laying ducks can eat up to eight inches of slug, like a child gobbing a candy bar. Some breeds like the Muscovy duck, can also control the fly, tick, wasp, mosquito and Japanese beetle population on your property.

A duck's webbed feet and curved bill don't tear, scratch up, and scatter plants or carefully-planted garden rows. A chicken's sharp beaks and feet love to scratch, which is great if they stay in their designated area, but terrible if they escape to your kitchen garden.

Ducks can also help you control weeds without harmful herbicides. While they are busy munching down your weeks, they will be producing phosphorous-rich manure for your garden, compost or property.

Easy To Breed

While many people do not like to keep roosters around because they can be aggressive, noisy or downright dangerous, male ducks are not particularly aggressive. Keeping a small breeding flock can help keep you supplied with an ongoing flock of ducklings year after year. If the flock gets too large, you can sell them or butcher them for meat.

The Weather Factor

A wet chicken is an unhappy chicken. A wet duck, however, is a very happy duck. Ducks are made for the cold and, and will continue (so long as it's not terribly bad) to lay. Chickens will use their resources and energy to keep warm. Also, ducks can free-range longer due to their weathering skills. Chickens cannot. Keep in mind, though, that in areas where the ground is frozen during the majority of the winter, you won't be able to free-range any sort of poultry.

Better Foragers

Ducks are much better forager than chickens. The majority of a chicken's diet is grain, bugs, worms, and such, with a little green food as a supplement. Ducks also eat some grain and animal life, but they consume many more greens than chickens, even grass, if it is rich and growing. Be sure it's no longer than 4 inches so they don't get tangled up in the grass. Ducks also enjoy and use wetlands, ponds, swamps and so on, which chickens avoid or get stuck in.

The Beautiful Bird

Many people choose to have ducks because they are fun and beautiful to see each day. There is something peaceful about watching a family of ducks foraging around your property quietly going about their business. Spending time observing these lovely birds can be a way to reduce stress or a quiet way to spend time with your children.

The Hardier Bird

As to diseases, ducks take the prize once more. A duckling is hardier than a chick because the duckling has more feathers, even at a young age, as well as a layer of subcutaneous fat. These enable the duckling to resist chill and therefore, more sicknesses than a chick. If waterproofed properly, (something you must leave up to them) ducklings can be out and about in their third week of life. Chicks are usually kept in during the first six to eight weeks.

Unlike chickens, ducks don’t need vaccinations, shots or worming treatments. They are not as vulnerable to things like ticks and lice like chickens tend to be as the daily bathing ritual keeps them cleaner.

Quack, Quack, Quack!

In conclusion, if you want to free-range your birds, have eggs year-round, have happy, healthy birds, and deal with pesky insects and weeds, you may want to consider ducks instead of chickens for your backyard flock.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

Handling Hatching Emergencies


Spring is approaching fast, and baby chick season with it. This is an exciting time for every owner of a self-reproducing flock, whether you hatch chicks in an incubator or let your broodies do the job.

As much as we all want the setting and hatching process to go smoothly, it is not for the faint-hearted. Chicks are delicate creatures, and if you hatch any amount of them you are bound to lose some. It is essential to be mentally prepared, as the disappointment can be heart-wrenching, especially if we are talking about pure-bred specimens you have fought tooth and nail to breed, or rare eggs you had barely been able to get your hands on.

In some cases, there is nothing to do but stand back and let nature take its course. Here, however, is a short list of common hatching emergencies which we have encountered over the years as chicken owners, and have been able to solve:

Broody abandons some of the eggs in the final stages of hatching. It may happen that one or two eggs hatch later than the others, either because they were added to the clutch later or because they have received, on average, less body heat than their counterparts, which may somewhat slow the hatching process. In this case the broody will sometimes get up from her nest and walk away with the already-hatched chicks, leaving the rest of the eggs to their fate.

It may also be that those eggs are late to hatch because they contain weak or deformed chicks, but if you candle them and see a viable chick, it is worth trying to give them a chance. Your options are:

1. Place the eggs in an incubator and, once they hatch, slip the chicks under the mother hen at night to prevent her from pecking them.

2. Place the eggs under another broody.

3. If you don’t have either an incubator or another broody, you can try removing the already hatched chicks into a brooder and return broody to the nesting-box, hoping she’ll sit on the eggs again. After successful hatching, reunite the family at night as described above.

Chick has difficulty getting out of the egg. This can be due to a weak chick, wrong positioning, or a particularly hard shell. Pay attention! The hatching process can take a varying amount of time and it’s heartbreaking to know in retrospect that you did more harm than good by interference. However, if a chick has pipped a hole in the shell but hasn’t progressed further for 24 hours and you see dried membranes, it may be that a little assistance is needed. Try to carefully moisten the membranes with a wet paper towel. After you’ve done that, gently chip away bits of shell around the egg’s “equator”, imitating the natural hatching process.

Incubator stops working. This can be due to a variety of technical reasons, for example a power cut-off. Or maybe the thermostat breaks down at the least opportune moment. We haven’t used our incubator for the past two seasons because we now live in an area with such an unreliable power supply, but once we were in the middle of hatching and our power was cut off for 48 hours due to a big storm. If this happens to you, first off, avoid opening the incubator so as not to let out any heat. After 8 to 12 hours, you will need to think of alternative ways of keeping those precious eggs warm. I actually took the eggs into bed with me, placed them carefully under my clothes and snuggled with them for most of the day. This sounds crazy, I know, but I really wanted those chicks to hatch, and I’m happy to say they did!

To avoid such extremes, have an extra power bank (UPS) into which you can plug your incubator, and/or an emergency generator. If you don’t have one on hand at the moment, place incubator in a small room and heat it as thoroughly as possible (with a gas or wood stove, for example). You might also want to surround the incubator with hot water bottles, just don’t overdo it. Hope for the best; often, even if the eggs cool down for 24 hours or so they will still hatch, only with a delay of a day or two.

The addition of new chicks to the flock is a great adventure, and the thrill you experience once you see a cute baby chick toss aside those shells and emerge into the world more than makes up for the many heart palpitations that precede it.

Anna Twitto’s academic background in nutrition made her care deeply about real food and seek ways to obtain it. Anna and her husband live on a plot of land in Israel. They aim to grow and raise a significant part of their food by maintaining a vegetable garden, keeping a flock of backyard chickens and foraging. Anna's books are on her Author Page. Connect with Anna on Facebook and read more about her current projects on her blog. Read all Anna's Mother Earth News posts here

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Quirky Character of Pekin and Khaki Campbell Ducks

Three Backyard Ducks In Snow

Farmyards are fully diverse and integrated communities. They are societies in which different species of animals play differing, varying, and interesting roles. The animals of Stony Kreek Farm are no different.

One such instance is that of our resident "doctors." Yes, our ducks are the physicians of the barnyard. They walk around consulting with one another, quacking to themselves and at the other animals. Ducks are very social creatures and are known for their intelligence.

Comparing Pekin and Khaki Campbell Ducks

We own a total of three ducks: two Pekin hens and one Khaki Campbell drake, or male duck. The Pekin duck originally came from China. It is a member of the Mallard family. The Pekin is best known for its meat and docile temperament. It lays up to 200 eggs per year. When you buy a duck in the grocery store, it is most likely a butchered Pekin.

The Khaki Campbell is a hybrid of several breeds. They originated in Great Britain over 100 years ago. A woman named Adel Campbell crossed Mallards, Rouens, and Indian Runner ducks to produce the breed that is named for her. They are docile in temperament and are known for their laying ability. The Khaki Campbell is known to lay up to 300 eggs a year.

The day begins early at Stony Kreek Farm. Fritz, the Appenzeller Spitzhaben rooster, awakens everyone and everything at 5am. Soon thereafter, you can hear a very loud quack! (Meet Fritz in an earlier post.)

Our two Pekins are called "Peekaboo" and "Skipper." The Khaki Campbell is affectionately known as "Little Buddy." We named the two for the characters on "Gilligan's Island." Peekaboo was named because she slants her head to one side as if to say "Peekaboo, I see you!"

Ducks with Character

The doctors walk around the yard and visit all the animals. Once in front of a group or coop, they circle one another and quack at each other. They will often flap their wings at a situation or at the other barnyard creatures. We call this part of the day, the "consult."

The most fun part of the day is the feeding of all animals. We feed each group separately. The "doctors" was watch with interest as the other animals finish their food and then make "follow-up" visits to collect their "fees." Yes, they collect food from the leftovers from the other animals.
"Quuuuaaack, quack, quack," breaks the silence as the end of the day approaches.

Often, I will yell, "Doctors!" They start quacking to themselves and start making their way to their enclosure.

Ducks are the prescription for a good time and alternative for those of us allergic to chicken eggs. If one is allergic to chicken eggs, that person should not be allergic to duck eggs — I have enjoyed French toast for the first time in my life.

Tom Hemme and his wife, Diana, work to raise crops and animals on Hemme Farm in Missouri. Born and raised in Nashville, Tenn., Tom taught agricultural history and Native American heritage for many years. Follow Tom on his website, Read all of Tom’s MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.

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Caring for Dry Cows and Promoting Healthy Calvings on a Micro Dairy


Dry cow management can be difficult on a small herd dairy for many reasons.  However proper management of dry cows is essential for successful calving.  Traditionally cows are dried off (stopped being milked) 60 days prior to their projected calving date.  Many people new to managing cows are flustered by the idea of drying a cow off and have many ideas about how to best accomplish that with a cow.  Some folks speculate that cows should be dried off slowly over a period of time and may milk a cow they are drying off once a day to begin with or perhaps every other day for a few days.  But after 50 years of drying cows off I am convinced that the best way to dry cows off is to just stop milking the cow and not to milk her again until after she calves.  When you stop milking a cow she will naturally continue to make milk and her udder will swell.  That is good.  It is the pressure that builds up in the udder that sends a signal to the mammary glands in her udder to stop producing milk.  If you relieve that pressure by milking her out occasionally you reduce the pressure and the mammary glands are sent the wrong signal.  I think it is much better to just let the cow's udder swell so she knows to stop making milk.  A simple way to help a cow reduce milk production is to reduce her water intake to the levels required by a dry cow, rather than a milking cow.  Milking cows will drink 20 to 25 gallons of water per day, depending upon the water content of their feed or pasture.  Dry cows will drink up to ten gallons per day.  But if you are trying to dry off a cow you could give her five to eight gallons of water per day for a day or two.  

True, the cow's teats may leak and drip milk for a couple of days or perhaps longer after you stop milking her but that is why it is very important to keep a dry cow in a clean and dry setting.  And if you become worried about the leaking opening the door to mastitis then dip the cow from time to time.  But, believe me, the sooner the udder can swell the sooner the cow will stop producing milk and the quicker the udder will shrink, as the left over milk is reabsorbed by the cow.

The nutritional needs of a dry cow are much different than the needs of a cow that is milking. Before any cow is dried off she should be in good condition with fat on her bones, but not too much.  Her body score should be 3.5 to 4.  In that case a dry cow should be exclusively fed a medium to good quality 1st cut long stem hay until two weeks prior to her calving date.  or you could keep her on a overly mature dry pasture. That will help her rumen get in shape for milk production after the cow calves.  Do not feed her any grain during this period or give her access to lush pasture.  That means you will have to keep your dry cow/s separated from your milking cows.

Do all you can to prevent your dry cows from becoming fat or over conditioned.  Though feeding them grain and/or good hay or lush pasture may seem like the kind thing to do it isn't.  It may lead to serious health problems after the cow calves, such as milk fever and ketosis. If cows are too fat when they calve they may not have the appetite required to eat enough feed to keep up with their nutritional needs.  Instead they may just be content to utilize the fat on their backs which is a sure way for them to develop Ketosis and in rare cases Nervous or crazy Ketosis which can be very traumatic for the cow and the farmer. 

Two weeks before your cow is due to calves is the time to start to "lead feed" them.  That means slowly introducing them to the feeds they will be fed after they calve.  Always introduce cows to new rations slowly.  Cows have very sensitive metabolisms and it doesn't take much to "throw them off".  It is critical to meet the cows nutritional needs during the last two weeks of their pregnancy.  During that time the calf inside her may double in size so make sure she has the feed she needs to keep up with the growth of her calf.  Your cow will not get fat when you are lead feeding her during the last two weeks of her pregnancy.  Just make sure you don't introduce too much good feed to quickly.  Let the cow get used to the new ration.

Dry cow management on large farms is easier because those farms usually have dry cow pens, or even dry cow barns or dry cow pastures where the dry cows can be easily segregated from the milk cows so they receive the proper dry cow rations.  In many cases Micro Dairies, or small herd dairies do not have separate pens, barns and or pastures they can devote to dry cows. And cows hate to be alone and separated from their herd.  So if you only have one dry cow, keeping her separated from the milking cows can be a challenge.  But it is a challenge you have to meet if you want your dry cows to calve out successfully.  Good luck!

 In 1991, Judge created the Vermont Family Farms brand of fluid milk in partnership with Vermont Milk Producers, Inc. This co-operative aimed to develop a new and innovative way to bring farm-fresh milk to the market. You can read all of Steve's posts here.

All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.

What is a Farm Dog? The Best Choices for Working Partners on the Farm or Ranch


Quick answer – a dog that lives on a farm.

A more complete answer would describe the breeds that traditionally worked on farms or ranches and were developed specifically for that work. Fast and clever herding dogs; noble and protective livestock guardian dogs; plucky terriers in the stable or field; and the multi-purpose breeds that weren’t specialists but could lend a hand to a hard working farmer or even pull a cart. In addition to their other jobs, most of these farm dog breeds also served as watchdogs for the homestead and companions for a more isolated lifestyle. These breeds remain an excellent fit for farm life as both a true working partner or a family companion in the country.

My new book Farm Dogs focuses exclusively on these breeds and the work they perform. The primary purpose of this book was to help people choose the right dog for their needs. The detailed breed profiles include specific aptitudes and inherited behaviors. Instead of the breed groups used by the kennel clubs, I choose to group these breeds by the actual work they traditionally performed for farming and livestock people.

Livestock Guardian Dogs

Among the oldest of the dog breed types are the shepherd’s dogs or livestock guardians, developed by the transhumant cultures that grazed open land and moved flocks from winter to high summer mountain pastures in places from Portugal, Spain, France, and Italy; through the countries of the Balkans and Carpathians; down into Turkey; over to the Caucasus; and throughout Central Asia into Tibet. In the company of shepherds, they protected sheep, goats, and occasionally other stock from predation. 

Selected over many centuries, these breeds all have physical and behavioral traits in common. Most look a bit like huge, overgrown puppies with curling tails, floppy drop ears, and warm double coats. They are also independent thinkers, strongly protective, low in energy, and nurturing towards their smallest charges. They should exhibit no prey or chase drive directed toward their animals.

Only very specific breeds are livestock guardians – this not a job any other breed can be trained to perform. About 20 of these breeds are found today in North America. Some are well known - the Great Pyrenees, Akbash, Komondor, Kuvasz, Maremma, and Anatolian Shepherd. Less common are breeds such as the Estrela, Central Asian Shepherd, Kangal, Karakachan, Sarplaniac, and the Spanish and Tibetan Mastiffs. Other breeds are even more rare – the Pyrenean Mastiff, Gampr, Tornjak, or Tatra.

Herding Dogs

Long after after the development of livestock guardian dogs, in some areas shepherds began to utilize another kind of dog with their flocks. Some of these herding dogs were bred specifically to fetch and gather animals. Herding dogs might also drive stock between distant pastures or to market, while still others acted as a “living fence” to keep grazing animals out of crops. They also emigrated with their sheep, goats, and cattle to other countries around the world, where they were sometimes changed to fit into new situations. Today, herding breeds are also very popular as companions and in dog sports or activities.

Herding dogs can vary in appearance, temperament, and behavior much more than livestock guardian dogs; however, they are generally medium-sized with coats that range from short and smooth to long and rough, often reflecting the climate and conditions of their homeland. Ears are often pricked, erect, or folded over and tails may be bobbed or long. All herding dogs possess a significant prey or chase drive, which is channeled towards work, along with specific herding traits such as eye, grip, and others. Herding dogs are usually higher in energy, as well as willing, smart, and trainable, but they also vary a great deal in their intensity or ability to relax in the home.

Popular herding breeds include the Border Collie, Australian Shepherd, Pembroke corgi, Rough collie, the Old English sheepdog, and German Shepherd. Lesser known breeds include the English and Dutch Shepherd, Bearded collie, Australian Cattle Dog, Cardigan corgi, Lapphund, Catahoula Leopard Dog, and engaging or delightful breeds like the Icelandic Sheepdog, Samoyed, Pyrenean Shepherd, Mudi, Puli, and others. 


Working Terriers and Earthdogs

Small vermin hunting dogs were common around barns, stables, and warehouses. Terriers were a more recent development in Britain and Ireland, where they hunted foxes, badgers, and otters in the countryside and rats in the cities. In Germany, the dachshunde and smaller pinschers did the same work. Terriers also emigrated with their owners to new homes in Australia and North America, where they were also selected to fit new purposes.

Traditionally, working terriers and other earthdogs were no larger around the chest than a man’s hands - or spannable - to insure they could slip in burrows and tunnels after their prey. Although their sizes were similar, their coats could be diverse; but they all share common behavioral and temperament traits. Terriers are full of energy, plucky and tough, with strong prey drives. Many are easily aroused and somewhat dog aggressive, unless they were traditionally worked in packs. There are some notable exceptions that make more easygoing family companions.

We are certainly familiar with the Jack Russell, Dachshund, and Miniature Schnauzer, but perhaps less so with the Australian, Border, Cairn, Fox, and Patterdale terriers, as well as the American original - the Rat terrier.

Traditional Multi-purpose Farm Dogs

These breeds – often jack-of-trades – are the most diverse in appearance and behavior. They served both as an extra farmhand and rural companion rather than a specialist worker. Some breeds worked with stock in the farmyard, while others pulled a farm cart, accompanied cattle to market, or controlled vermin. Many of these breeds remain very alert watchdogs, as well as loyal and devoted companions to their families.

These breeds are tremendously diverse in temperament, behaviors, working abilities, and appearance. Some breeds have high energy and prey drive, and need serious work every day, while others are more laid-back and content as family companions.

The Bernese Mountain Dog, Rottweiler, Leonberger, Newfoundland, and Belgians Shepherds are familiar multi-purpose breeds. New to the America, are breeds like the Danish Swedish Farmdog, Hovawart, Pumi, Entlebucher, and Appenzeller. In their homelands, the larger Irish terriers and the Schnauzers were also traditional farm dogs.

The Farm Dog

Focusing on traditional, hard working farm dogs, the profiled breeds were selected for their real working abilities on a farm or ranch, and they remain well suited for country life. My hope is that you will discover a new working partner or family companion, perfectly suited to your needs and preferences.

Farm Dogs is the first comprehensive book on working farm dogs, including color photography and comprehensive descriptions, history, and working traits of 93 livestock guardians; herders; working terriers and earthdogs; and traditional farm and working partners.

Photos by: Sarplaninac @Louise Liebenberg, Grazerie, Alberta; English Shepherd @ Mars Vilaubi; Terrier and Boots by @Alamy; Sennenhund Leuchtender Hund, Wikicommons

With more than 35 years of hands-on LGD experience, Jan Dohner writes for Mother Earth News and Storey Publishing. For more information visit Read all of Jan's MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.

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