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4/14/2016

New York Heartwoods owner Megan Offner

New York Heartwoods (NYH) began in 2010, with the help of Dave and Steve Washburn, Hugh Herrera, myself, and a portable sawmill. Our plan to manage and harvest trees ourselves was scratched when we realized how many were falling over, dying and being removed by arborists.

Multiple severe storms and several invasive insect epidemics have led to unprecedented challenges to our forests and communities while budgets of municipalities and landowners are stretched with the reoccurring removals of downed or dying trees. Landfills across the country are struggling to keep up with the amount of wood waste that is being generated and at the same time, people need jobs and communities are evolving to become more resilient.

By processing urban wood, we participate in creating solutions: reducing wood disposal expenses, redirecting material from our waste stream, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, fueling the demand for local wood products, and growing an exciting new economy.

Urban Wood in Perspective

According to Stephen M. Bratkovich from the USDA Forest Service,“In the United States, over 200 million cubic yards of urban tree and landscape residue are generated every year. Of this amount, 15 percent is classified as ‘unchipped logs’. To put this figure in perspective, consider that if these logs were sawn into boards, they theoretically would produce 3.8 billion board feet of lumber, or nearly 30 percent of the hardwood lumber produced annually in the United States."

Due to annual weather events like Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, along with the arrival of pests, such as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), we have access to more logs than we are equipped to process. Harvesting logs ourselves is labor-intensive and, therefore, in most cases, cost-prohibitive at our scale.

Community relationships are the key to both supply and demand. By working with tree services we can have waste logs delivered for free or, at most, for the cost of gas and the driver’s time. Beyond the tree services that provide logs and clients to buy wood, are landowners, institutions, land trusts, the Department of Transportation, utility companies, municipal land managers and local officials. We have found the latter is an especially fruitful connection as they control what the contracted arborist does with city trees.

As most towns and cities are burdened with increasing costs for citywide services, decreasing revenues, rising landfill costs, and decreasing landfill space, redirecting logs creates waste management solutions and reduces storm clean up expenses, which can generate wood for park benches, picnic tables, fencing, flooring and cabinets for city buildings. The ability to ameliorate local issues while creating valuable lumber may lead to municipal contracts and resources that will support both log supply and the demand for products.

Logs recovered after Hurricane Sandy

Giving Meaning to Urban Wood

Portable band sawmills have a great advantage over large circular sawmills when working with urban trees. Their ability to travel to sites can eliminate logistical challenges and expenses of transporting or disposing of logs.

For example, after Hurricane Sandy landfills were at full capacity so many cities and towns across New York State designated parking lots for the staging of logs. Local sawyers were invited to come mill what they wanted for free, and even still, it took months for many of those piles to diminish.

The possibility of hitting metal, common in urban trees, is too expensive a risk for commercial circular sawmills. Metal can dull blades and slow down band saw production, but since the narrow band blades are inexpensive and easy to sharpen, that value can be recouped with proper marketing of the tree’s story and the wood’s character.

Urban trees generally have lower branches and contain metal or other foreign objects, creating dramatic knots, colors, and grain. These unique characteristics, along with the tree’s history, are desirable to artisans, fabricators, interior designers and architects for the creation of furniture, flooring and other custom products.

Documenting the tree’s story and providing pictures of its transformation into finished products adds value by making it more meaningful to the buyer. Every industry uses wood in some capacity, which leads to a multitude of niche market possibilities. By reaching out to my previous networks to see how I could create solutions to their problems, I was able to build most of my business on personal contacts and word-of-mouth.

Megan Offner sawmilling

The Future of Urban Wood

As my access to urban markets is one of NYH’s strengths, I am increasingly brokering wood for other local sawyers with a similar ethos. I see that in the same way that marketing and distribution hubs are being created to assist the success of small farmers, and local wood being the next “local food”, there is needed support for the growing number of independent sawyers.

The Illinois Urban Wood Utilization team and Urbanwood in Michigan are two wonderful non-profit models of networks that facilitate the wood use chain from arborists, sawyers, woodworkers, distributors to buyers. As our population grows, so does the amount of urban land in the United States.

According to the Journal of Forestry, by 2050 the amount of urbanized areas is projected to increase from 3.1% in 2000 to 8.1%, a total of 392,400 km, which is larger than the state of Montana. With this, the production and sale of urban wood will also grow, and there will be more integration into municipal management systems. For now, innovation is happening on the ground - one mill at a time.

Megan Offner is the co-founder of New York Heartwoods, a woman-owned social enterprise LLC in Warwick, NY in 2010. Her mission is to regenerate forest vitality and local economies by building systems and relationships that maximize the value of “waste” trees.

The Wood-Mizer Team includes a diverse group of woodworkers, farmers, homesteaders, arborists, entrepreneurs, and more who are excited to share their knowledge and experiences of working with wood from forest to final form. Since 1982, the team has brought portable, personal sawmills to people all over the world who want the freedom of sawing their own lumber. Find Wood-Mizer on their website, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Pinterest and Twitter. Read all of the team’s MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.



4/8/2016

Cordwood chicken coops are springing up all over the country. There is growing interest in raising chickens, gathering eggs and protecting ones flock. Cities are passing "chicken ordinances" (many are allowing three chickens per backyard) and folks are reading about how best to feed, house and care for their fine, feathered friends.

Needless to say, there are some interesting examples of cordwood chicken coops. Here are a few of them.

 Cordwood Chicken Coop

One of my new favorite coops is in British Columbia. It was built by Tasha Hall out of Western Red Cedar. Tasha incorporated many comfort features for her feathered friends.

Cordwood Chicken Coop BC

Tom Huber has a serious skill set when it comes to beautification of a coop. 

Huber chicken coop

Tom Huber built this chicken "coop-de-ville" for his laying flock in Michigan. He used cordwood siding to make the place more attractive to the flock and said the new, "look" helped increase the production of eggs.

Huber chicken coop 2

This is Tom Huber's newest chicken coop in Potsdam, New York. He is now a professor at Paul Smith's College and is establishing another gorgeous homestead called Cedar Eden. You can see the "scratching pen" at the rear of the photo.

 william cahill chicken coop

This is William Cahill's thatch work on a cordwood garden shed with attached chicken coop/rabbit hutch. Located in southern Indiana, the climate is ideal for keeping the birds laying year-round. His website is Roof Thatch.

Tasha chicken box

Tasha also provided multi-colored nest boxes for her brood.

If you are interested in a cordwood chicken coop, it would be wise to gather information on how to best build a cordwood shed/coop. Cordwood Construction Best Practices is the latest book on the subject (updated as of 2015) and it will teach you how to build a lasting structure using a best practices approach.

Cordwood Construction Best Practices

Go to CordwoodConstruction.org and click on the online bookstore link to find this and many other cordwood books in ebook and print format. Good luck with your project. If you have a question, please email me at richardflatau@gmail.com and if I am not out teaching a cordwood workshop, I will get back to you asap. While at the online bookstore, you may also want to take a peek at Cordwood Shed Plans.

Cordwood shed plans

Nearly four decades ago, Richard Flatau and his wife, Becky, built their mortgage-free cordwood home in northern Wisconsin. Since then, as directors of Cordwood Construction Resources, the couple has written books, conducted workshops, organized Cordwood Conferences and provided earth friendly, best practices consultation for cordwood builders. Read all of his MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.



4/5/2016

 

Back in 2011, I found myself carrying a tent and a few gardening tools down to a field in the hills of southern Turkey. At the time, I had no idea about building. I’d never so much as put a shelf up in my life. Eight months later, I was perched on an earthbag wall hammering in wooden anchors for rafters. I had learned what a joist was, and a stem wall.

The experience of building my own home was one of the most transformative I’ve ever had. I now live in that beautiful circle of mud. From being utterly novice, I have become a reasonable sustainable builder.

I mention this because who doesn’t want a beautiful green home? Who wouldn’t love to create their own healthy and sustainable space, a space that inspires them every day? I remember years earlier, a friend showing me Simon Dale’s strawbale hobbit house. I had adored it. It was a dream home. I never imagined I’d be living in one, never mind constructing my own. But the truth is this is something anyone, yes anyone, can do.

So if we all dream of it, why aren’t more of us doing it?

Is Natural Building Difficult?

People think building is difficult. It’s not. And in the hope of encouraging a few more wannabe natural builders, I’ve compiled the following list. Because in my experience, there are far harder things in life than building a house.

Things People Regularly Do that are More Stressful than Building a Green Home

Working a job you hate for a year. Struggling through the daily grind day after day is soul destroying. It saps your life force and demoralizes you. Building a house energizes and empowers you. If you’ve worked in the system for decades then what can I say? Building should be a breeze.

Buying a house the traditional way. Mortgages, lawyers, bank officials, signing your name against hundreds of thousands of dollars of debt and then having to work half a lifetime to pay off that debt. This is way more stressful than a few months messing about in mud.

Hiring contractors to build your house for you. Unless you are very lucky, dealing with workmen and contractors is like teeth extraction. When you build your own home, the power is yours. You dictate the work schedule, you control the budget, and you do it properly.

Writing a book. Writing a book will demand a lot more courage, perseverance and time than building a house. Take it from me, I’ve done both.

Having children. I can’t personally attest to this one, as I don’t have children. But from the outside it definitely looks a lot more challenging than building a house.

Getting divorced. Ouch! Divorce is the collapse of a dream, building a home is the creation of one.

Reasons People Hesitate to Attempt Building a Natural Home

1. They don’t know where to start.

2. They are daunted by the jargon.

3. They are afraid to make a structural error and have the house collapse on them.

4. Economic reasons.

I’ve suffered most of these doubts, but they are all easily overcome, even by complete beginners.

Lack of knowledge or skills is going to be the least of your worries. I learned you can always find information online, and skills are easily acquired. Construction isn’t rocket science. Really. What you need to focus on is strengthening your determination, self-belief and cultivating a resilience to naysayers.

As for the economic considerations; building your own home is incredibly inexpensive compared to hiring a contractor to do it. My house cost $5,000 and that price includes labour, a carpenter for windows and doors, and wood for the roof and floor. It’s a small home (not tiny) but ample for my needs.

So if you’re dreaming of natural building, but don’t know where to start…

Tips for Beginner Natural Builders

1. Join a natural building workshop and get your hands dirty. Feel how much fun it is to build.

2. Join an online natural building forum (there are oodles of them nowadays).

3. Try building small structures (such as a dog kennel, outside toilet or a shed) first.

4. Take general advice (i.e. that of your neighbours, colleagues and great uncle Frank) with a large pinch of salt. Even professionals can err. The mainstream construction industry does things very differently from the green building world. I was told by architects that it was impossible to have foundations without concrete, and I’ve had qualified engineers write to me to say they’d never seen the earthbag technique before. Green builders are bucking the system not bending to it.

5. Hire help in the beginning, observe and learn from your labourers, then slowly wean yourself off them.

Atulya K Bingham is an author and sustainable building addict. She lives semi off-grid in Turkey in her beloved earthbag house. Until April 30th, you can download her ebook Mud Mountain, The Secret Diary of an Accidental Off-Gridder for free! You can also find a free earthbag building PDF and other natural building tips from her website. Read all of Atulya's MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.



4/3/2016

DIY Chimney Chase Cover Before 

Above: Before chimney chase cover installation

Chimney Chase Cover Installation After

Above: After chimney chase cover installation

Installing a chimney chase cover is a common project among do-it-yourself homeowners. Many homes were built with galvanized chase covers which rust after a few years – causing leaks and rust stains. Homes that were built with a masonry chimney eventually end up with a cracked and weathered mortar crown, also causing leaks and damage to the home.

Below, we will explain in full detail how to install a chimney chase cover. After reading, you will see how simple the installation is and know the basics for how to install your own.

1. First, remove the rain cap that is attached to either the chimney pipe or the chase cover. Typically, rain caps are installed with screws or a twist lock system. After the chimney cap is removed, the next step is to remove the screws or nails that are holding the rusty chase cover onto the chase. With the nails removed, gently lift the chase cover off.

2. Using a high temperature caulk, apply a bead around the top edge of the chimney chase. This will give the new chimney chase cover added protection.

3. Pre-tap holes in all four sides of the new chase cover. This will make it easier to screw into the chimney chase. If you prefer, you can do this step while you're on the ground before you bring the chase cover onto the roof.

4. Next, place the new stainless steel chimney cover onto the chase. Push all sides down firmly so that the cover makes contact with the caulk. After the cover is in place, put screws in all four sides to secure the cover to the chimney.

5. Add the rain cap, and you've successfully installed a stainless steel chase cover that will never rust!

We've included a before photo of a rusted chase cover that needs replacing and an after photo of a stainless steel chase cover that will never rust. Watch our DIY chase cover installation video as well to supplement this step by step info.

Photos and video by Rockford Chimney Supply

Jaquelin White is a Web marketer near Ann Arbor, Michigan. From helping local businesses increase their web presence to working for Rockford Chimney Supply serving the U.S. and Canada, Jaquelin loves the always-changing ways of the web, because there is always something new to learn and try. Find her on LinkedIn.
All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Guidelines, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on their byline link at the top of the page.


3/21/2016

 

Spring comes around in March and Earth Day follows in April, and while some of us are spring cleaning, others are looking at ways to save energy and helping to protect the environment. According to the Department of Energy, many Americans are leaching up to 30% of their heated or cooled air through leaks, cracks or poor insulation.

While you can hire a professional to perform a complete home energy audit, homeowners can conquer this important task themselves by following some simple guidelines, especially when it comes to checking and/or adding additional attic insulation if necessary.

With the advent of multiple consumer-friendly home improvement stores and “big box” chains, this job is easier than ever. It also comes complete with plenty of affordable supplies that were once available only to contractors and building professionals.

Knowing whether or not your attic is properly insulated is one of many ways to save money on power and reduce utility bills, in addition to lowering thermostats and shutting off items when not in use. So here are some tips on how to check your home’s insulation that can help to curb these rising energy costs.

Install the Right-Sized Insulation

If you have an older home, chances are the insulation installed at that time was less that what is recommended today. Levels and depths of insulation are also varied according to your location, with those in colder climates requiring more and warmer areas needing less.

While a rating of R25 was once considered the “norm” in the industry, levels as high as R60 are recommended for much colder environments like Minnesota or Michigan. EnergyStar has a convenient chart you can use as a reference for both your geographic location and the various areas of your home that require protection.

Barrier Bummers

There’s more to appropriate attic insulation than the traditional pink rolls, blown or foam types of coverage. When you’re checking the insulation, look underneath for a vapor barrier, which could be tar paper, plastic sheeting or Kraft paper attached to styrofoam batting.

This barrier helps to reduce moisture that can decrease the effectiveness of the insulation. It also helps to discourage unnecessary structural damage from mold and mildew. If this barrier isn’t present or is in poor condition, consider applying any of these choices. Another, easier option may be applying vapor-barrier paint to interior ceilings.

Batten Down the Hatches

The opening to an attic can sometimes be the culprit as a source of unnecessary leakage and seepage. The hatch, doorway or any other type of opening, should also be insulated, close tightly and have adequate weather stripping installed.

Look for other possible locations for potential leaks such as pipes, vents, ductwork, chimneys or other shared spaces.

Wall Insulation and Home Energy Auditing

Checking wall insulation is a whole different ball game and is often a task best left to professionals and can become costly very quickly. But while you’re looking for air leaks and insufficiencies upstairs, don’t forget about the rest of your home. You don’t have to tear down walls to check for adequate insulation there, but take some time to look for other sources of leaks around your home.

Check doorways, windows and the garage for other possible sources of escaping energy. A little bit of inexpensive caulking and weather stripping can go a long way towards reducing energy bills and conserving resources. Read “Home Energy Audits: Measure Your Energy costs and Add Up the Savings” from the December 2011 issue of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for more information.

This MOTHER EARTH NEWS guest post was provided by Uma Campbell, a green-loving yoga instructor and freelance writer. She currently lives in Southern California where she enjoys writing about natural living, health, and home design. Find Uma on her blog and Twitter.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.



3/3/2016

The first time I saw a living roof, I wanted one. A meadow on the top of your house? Who wouldn’t want that? I discussed with friends how I’d grow fruit up there, and imagined myself laying in the lush green grass plucking strawberries. I forgot of course I was living on Turkey’s Mediterranean where it doesn’t rain for five months a year. Green roofs are perfect for cool, wet climates. But for the hot and the dry?

Unfortunately, I’m a stubborn sort, notorious for paying zero attention to advice or practicalities. The benefit of such a character is that occasionally you come up with new ways of doing things. My living/dead roof is one of them.

My roof is constructed the same way as a conventional living roof, with one small adjustment. Half of the year it’s dead.

 

How to Make a Living Roof

Before you do anything at all, make sure your joists are strong enough. Earth roofs are heavy, and depending on how much soil, water, plants and what type of membrane you’ve used, it could weigh anywhere between 100-250 kg/square metre. You can check these figures in more detail here.

Also make sure you have the correct incline, (mine is 10 cm from front to back on a roof about 7 metres diameter, and I’d say that’s perfect). If there’s no incline, the water can’t drain away leaving you with a pond sitting on your roof. If the incline is too steep, you may have erosion issues.

A living roof is constructed with the following layers:

1. Plywood or OSB nailed to your roof joists.

2. A layer of thick (I used 4mm) waterproof roofing membrane. This is often made of rubber or modified bitumen.

3. A root barrier (greenhouse plastic works fine here). You need the barrier to stop plant roots burrowing into the membrane.

4. A drainage layer. Gravel and pumice are the least expensive and most natural options. Pumice may be preferable, because it’s lighter. Alternatively, you could purchase a synthetic drainage layer, such as a dimple mat.

5. A layer of blankets stops the soil clogging up the gravel/pumice. This layer may not be necessary if you use a synthetic drainage layer which has a soil barrier within it.

6. Earth mixed with compost. If you are worried about the weight of your roof, consider adding perlite or coconut husks to lighten the load, as well. Alternatively, leave a space in the middle of the roof, like I did, so the weight is concentrated on the supporting walls.

7. Plants. What you want is quick spreading, short plants like grass. Succulents can also work well. What you don’t want is a tree.

You also need to frame the sides of the roof to stop the soil falling out. I used wood. You could also use mesh guttering.

My Roof Both Lives and Dies

I made my roof back in 2012. How happy I was when I planted my flowers and succulents. Three months later, I had lost my smile, and so had my roof. There is no rain for five months of the year where I live, and of course the top of a roof is blazing hot. Everything died. So I came up with another plan: the semi-dead roof.

In summer, I cover the soil in dry grass cut from my garden. I have learned it’s easy to shape the straw by spraying water over it. The straw effectively insulates the house from the furnace-like heat. When winter comes, the dry grass rots and seeds, creating a lovely green roof. The fresh green growth prevents the earth from eroding in the heavy rain, too.

Myths About Living Roofs

There seem to be a lot of preconceptions about living roofs, most of which are wrong. Here’s some myths you may have heard.

1. Living roofs are hard to maintain. A living roof requires very little maintenance. The grass and earth protect the waterproof layers from sun damage, so the roof lasts indefinitely. And you never have to paint it or replace tiles.

2. Living roofs will leak. As long as your waterproof membrane is laid correctly, and you have a decent root barrier, all is well. This is the driest roof I’ve ever lived beneath in all my life.

3. Expensive and tricky to make. I had no money and no building experience when I built my house. The living roof is probably the most inexpensive and easiest roofing option going, especially if you use a basic pumice/gravel and blanket system.

Other Advantages of a Living Roof

1. Flood prevention. Living roofs slow surface run-off and reduced flooding around your property.

2. Camouflage. I admit, my roof, with its huge straw flower, wouldn’t fool a spy plane. But most green roofs blend into their environment making them less obvious from the air.

3. Sound proofing. If you’ve ever lived under a tin roof, you know how noisy rain can be. Tiles are not much better. A living roof is quiet.

4. Fireproofing. Living roofs, when they’re wet and alive, are not going to burn. Obviously, the semi-dead option, comes with no such guarantee. Though don’t forget, there is 15-20 cm layer of earth under the straw to slow a fire down.

5. Wildlife habitat. This is my favourite part of the roof. It’s a haven for birds, lizards, squirrels, and other creatures.

Atulya K Bingham is an author and sustainable building addict. She lives semi off-grid in Turkey in her beloved earthbag house. Her days are spent growing her own food, experimenting with natural building techniques, and writing. For a limited time you can download her ebook Mud Mountain, The Secret Diary of an Accidental Off-Gridder for free!You can also find a free earthbag building PDF and other natural building tips from her website, The Mud Home. Read all of Atulya's MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.



3/3/2016

BathroomRecycling

When it comes to recycling household products, most people only think about the kitchen: the soup cans, the pasta jars, the cardboard cereal boxes and snack packaging. While recycling bins are commonly found next to the kitchen trash, you should also consider adding some to your bathroom.

Sound strange? Not when you realize those tissue boxes, cardboard toilet paper rolls and plastic shampoo bottles that usually end up in the trash are all recyclable. Most people don’t consider their bathroom beyond basic decoration and functionality, but it takes just a few minutes and very little space to set up a convenient station that can help save the earth and keep a lot of waste out of landfills.

Setting Up Your Recycling System

1. Gather three small baskets, bins or boxes (old shoeboxes work great in a pinch!). If you aren’t hiding the system away, or you’re concerned it won’t match your bathroom decor, consider purchasing three decorative wastebaskets instead.

2. Label each box or basket: one for plastic, one for aerosol cans and one for cardboard.

3. Place your baskets or boxes under the vanity, tuck them in an unused corner, or stack them in the linen closet.

4. Make sure your family knows which items can be recycled—some are surprising! My children didn’t know they could recycle the plastic bag that held cotton balls or the sunscreen bottle, and my husband didn’t realize that his shaving cream can and deodorant container could be salvaged, too. To avoid confusion, consider printing a list of eligible recyclables, then laminating it and hanging it on a towel hook in the bathroom. Here are a few to get you started:

• Hairspray cans
• Plastic combs
• Hand lotion tubes
• Cardboard boxes from toothpaste, bars of soap, etc.
• Mouthwash bottles
• Plastic packaging
• Contact lens solution bottles

Note that plastic bottle pumps cannot be recycled. To help prevent any mishaps (and cut down on waste), purchase non-disposable soap and lotion dispensers and buy your hand soap and body lotion in refill packages.

If you are currently remodeling your bathroom, have your recycling system in mind when picking out your furnishings. A vanity with spacious cabinets is the perfect place to stow recycling bins, keeping your bathroom looking neat and tidy.

Make Recycling a Habit

It can take some time for this shift in behavior to take root with your family. If you’re used to throwing away the shampoo bottle, you’ll have to make a conscious effort to change that habit and place it in the recycling box instead. When my family started, I’d regularly see items in the trash can that needed to be moved. It became easier after a few reminders, and now it’s a natural habit.

It’s an important habit, too—the average American generates 4.3 pounds of waste per day. With the number of personal care products used in most homes, it only makes sense to recycle. In fact, the Environmental Working Group reported that a quarter of all women use at least 15 different toiletries daily. Think of all those plastic bottles, boxes and aerosol cans that just get tossed into the trash. What a difference it would make if we all had a bathroom recycling station!

Green and Clean Mom Sommer Poquette is a recycling maven who shares her tips online for The Home Depot. Sommer’s advice on bathroom recycling aims to keep this most important room organized and eco-friendly. To review bathroom vanities that can help you set up your recycling system, you can visit Home Depot's website. Read all of Sommer's MOTHER EARTH NEWS posts here.


All MOTHER EARTH NEWS community bloggers have agreed to follow our Blogging Best Practices, and they are responsible for the accuracy of their posts. To learn more about the author of this post, click on the byline link at the top of the page.









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